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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 1509048, 12 pages
Research Article

Acute Elevated Glucose Promotes Abnormal Action Potential-Induced Ca2+ Transients in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Fibers

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Erick O. Hernández-Ochoa; ude.dnalyramu.mos@aohco-zednanrehe

Received 19 April 2017; Revised 1 June 2017; Accepted 22 June 2017; Published 1 August 2017

Academic Editor: Mark A. Yorek

Copyright © 2017 Erick O. Hernández-Ochoa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Supplemental Figure 1. Acute (1 h.) exposure to elevated D-glucose enhances AP-evoked Ca2+ transients in cultured muscle fibers. Comparison of the time course of AP-induced Ca2+ transients in muscle fibers before (black trace; control medium) and after 1 h. challenge with 25 mM D-glucose, cyan trace (A), or after 1 h. challenge with 25 mM L-glucose, red trace (B). Summary of rest and at peak indo-1 ratio measurements for fibers exposed to 25 mM elevated D- or L-glucose (C). No significant (N.S) changes in resting indo-1 ratio were found in fibers challenged with either 25 mM elevated D- or -L-glucose. Exposure for 1 h. with D-glucose induced a significant increase in peak indo-1 ratio. *Indicates p < 0.05 compared with control, two-sample unpaired Student’s t-test, n = 14-15 fibers, 3 mice.Supplemental Figure 2. Ara-C treatments minimize in vitro de-differentiation. Exemplar transmitted light images of muscle fibers cultured in serum-containing medium (A) and serum-containing medium and treated with cytosine β-D-arabinofuranoside (B; ara-C, 10 µM; 24 h.) to minimize de-differentiation. Images of the same fibers were taken at day 1 (upper rows) and day 5 (lower rows) after fiber plating. Scale bar 100 µm. Note that in fibers treated with ara-C, the morphology was retained after 5 day in culture, whereas cell proliferation, intercellular fusion, and fiber sprouting were evident in the serum-containing medium

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