Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3141678, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3141678
Research Article

Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Ocular Microcirculation Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy in a Hospital Setting Devoted to Sleep Apnea Syndrome Diagnostics

1Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan
2Cardiovascular Center, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Chiba, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Tomoaki Shiba

Received 25 April 2017; Revised 12 July 2017; Accepted 1 August 2017; Published 5 September 2017

Academic Editor: Patrizio Tatti

Copyright © 2017 Tomoaki Shiba et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Sattar, A. Gaw, O. Scherbakova et al., “Metabolic syndrome with and without C-reactive protein as a predictor of coronary heart disease and diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study,” Circulation, vol. 108, pp. 414–419, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. M. Alexander, P. B. Landsman, S. M. Teutsch, S. M. Haffner, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), “NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older,” Diabetes, vol. 52, pp. 1210–1214, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  3. B. Isomaa, P. Almgren, T. Tuomi et al., “Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, pp. 683–689, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. H. M. Lakka, D. E. Laaksonen, T. A. Lakka et al., “The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, pp. 2709–2716, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  5. Y. Matoba, T. Inoguchi, S. Nasu et al., “Optimal cut points of waist circumference for the clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in the Japanese population,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, pp. 590–592, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Hassinen, P. Komulainen, T. A. Lakka et al., “Metabolic syndrome and the progression of carotid intima-media thickness in elderly women,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 166, pp. 444–449, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. K. Wallenfeldt, J. Hulthe, and B. Fagerberg, “The metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men according to different definitions and related changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) during 3 years of follow-up,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 258, pp. 28–37, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Iglseder, P. Cip, L. Malaimare, G. Ladurner, and B. Paulweber, “The metabolic syndrome is a stronger risk factor for early carotid atherosclerosis in women than in men,” Stroke, vol. 36, pp. 1212–1217, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Scuteri, S. S. Najjar, D. C. Muller et al., “Metabolic syndrome amplifies the ageassociated increases in vascular thickness and stiffness,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, pp. 1388–1395, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Hulthe, L. Bokemark, J. Wikstrand, and B. Fagerberg, “The metabolic syndrome, LDL particle size, and atherosclerosis: the atherosclerosis and insulin resistance (AIR) study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 20, pp. 2140–2147, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. R. L. Pollex, K. Z. Al-Shali, A. A. House et al., “Relationship of the metabolic syndrome to carotid ultrasound traits,” Cardiovascular Ultrasound, vol. 4, p. 28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Masugata, S. Senda, F. Goda et al., “Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction as assessed by echocardiography in metabolic syndrome,” Hypertension Research, vol. 29, pp. 897–903, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. M. Seo, T. H. Park, D. Y. Lee et al., “Subclinical myocardial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome patients without hypertension,” Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, vol. 19, pp. 134–139, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. L. de las Fuentes, A. L. Brown, S. J. Mathews et al., “Metabolic syndrome is associated with abnormal left ventricular diastolic function independent of left ventricular mass,” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, pp. 553–559, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Fontes-Carvalho, R. Ladeiras-Lopes, P. Bettencourt, A. Leite-Moreira, and A. Azevedo, “Diastolic dysfunction in the diabetic continuum: association with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, vol. 14, p. 4, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y. Tamaki, M. Araie, E. Kawamoto, S. Eguchi, and H. Fujii, “Non-contact, two-dimensional measurement of tissue circulation in choroid and optic nerve head using laser speckle phenomenon,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 60, pp. 373–383, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  17. H. Isono, S. Kishi, Y. Kimura, N. Hagiwara, N. Konishi, and H. Fujii, “Observation of choroidal circulation using index of erythrocytic velocity,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, pp. 225–231, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Fujii, “Visualisation of retinal blood flow by laser speckle flow-graphy,” Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, vol. 32, pp. 302–304, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  19. H. Fujii, “Laser speckle flowgraphy,” in Medical Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, pp. 216–224, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, India; London, UK, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  20. H. Takahashi, T. Sugiyama, H. Tokushige et al., “Comparison of CCD-equipped laser speckle flowgraphy with hydrogen gas clearance method in the measurement of optic nerve head microcirculation in rabbits,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 108, pp. 10–15, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Sugiyama, “Basic technology and clinical applications of the updated model of laser speckle flowgraphy to ocular diseases,” Photonics, vol. 1, pp. 220–234, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. T. Shiba, M. Takahashi, Y. Hori, and T. Maeno, “Pulse-wave analysis of optic nerve head circulation is significantly correlated with brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness, and age,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 250, pp. 1275–1281, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Shiba, M. Takahashi, Y. Hori, T. Maeno, and K. Shirai, “Optic nerve head circulation determined by pulse wave analysis is significantly correlated with cardio ankle vascular index, left ventricular diastolic function, and age,” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 19, pp. 999–1005, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. M. Rina, T. Shiba, M. Takahashi, Y. Hori, and T. Maeno, “Pulse waveform analysis of optic nerve head circulation for predicting carotid atherosclerotic changes,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 253, pp. 2285–2291, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Shiba, M. Takahashi, T. Matsumoto, K. Shirai, and Y. Hori, “Arterial stiffness shown by the cardio-ankle vascular index is an important contributor to optic nerve head microcirculation,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 255, pp. 99–105, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. D. H. O’Leary, J. F. Polak, R. A. Kronmal, T. A. Manolio, G. L. Burke, and S. K. Wolfson Jr, “Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, pp. 14–22, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Takiuchi, K. Kamide, Y. Miwa et al., “Diagnostic value of carotid intima-media thickness and plaque score for predicting target organ damage in patients with essential hypertension,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 18, pp. 17–23, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. F. Nagueh, C. P. Appleton, T. C. Gillebert et al., “Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 10, pp. 165–193, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. H. Lee, S. Choi, W. J. Chung et al., “Tissue Doppler index, E/E’, and ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 271, no. 1-2, pp. 148–152, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. R. Ommen, R. A. Nishimura, C. P. Appleton et al., “Clinical utility of Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging in the estimation of left ventricular filling pressures: a comparative simultaneous Doppler-catheterization study,” Circulation, vol. 102, pp. 1788–1794, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, A. S. Rudenski, B. A. Naylor, D. F. Treacher, and R. C. Turner, “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, pp. 412–419, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  32. “Definition and the diagnostic standard for metabolic syndrome. Committee to Evaluate Diagnostic Standards for Metabolic Syndrome,” Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi, vol. 94, pp. 794–809, 2005.
  33. T. Teramoto, J. Sasaki, H. Ueshima et al., “Metabolic syndrome,” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 15, pp. 1–5, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  34. T. Sugiyama, M. Araie, C. E. Riva, L. Schmetterer, and S. Orgul, “Use of laser speckle flowgraphy in ocular blood flow research,” Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 88, pp. 723–729, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Shiba, T. Shiba, M. Takahashi, T. Matsumoto, and Y. Hori, “Relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin A1c and ocular circulation by laser speckle flowgraphy in patients with/without diabetes mellitus,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 254, pp. 1801–1809, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. W. Oh, S. Lee, C. Park, and D. J. Kim, “Elevated intraocular pressure is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 21, pp. 434–440, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Kim, J. W. Jeoung, K. H. Park, W. H. Oh, H. J. Choi, and D. M. Kim, “Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor in normal-tension glaucoma,” Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 92, pp. 637–643, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. A. Newman-Casey, N. Talwar, B. Nan, D. C. Musch, and J. D. Stein, “The relationship between components of metabolic syndrome and open-angle glaucoma,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, pp. 1318–1326, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Ghaem Maralani, B. C. Tai, T. Y. Wong et al., “Metabolic syndrome and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” Retina, vol. 35, pp. 459–466, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. N. Aizawa, F. Nitta, H. Kunikata et al., “Laser speckle and hydrogen gas clearance measurements of optic nerve circulation in albino and pigmented rabbits with or without optic disc atrophy,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 55, pp. 7991–7996, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. Zhao, K. Yang, F. Wang et al., “Associations between metabolic syndrome and syndrome components and retinal microvascular signs in a rural Chinese population: the Handan Eye Study,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 250, pp. 1755–1763, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Y. Wong, B. B. Duncan, S. H. Golden et al., “Associations between the metabolic syndrome and retinal microvascular signs: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 45, pp. 2949–2954, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Kawasaki, J. M. Tielsch, J. J. Wang et al., “The metabolic syndrome and retinal microvascular signs in a Japanese population: the Funagata study,” The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 92, pp. 161–166, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. M. Reaven, “Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease,” Diabetes, vol. 37, pp. 1595–1607, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  45. R. A. DeFronzo and E. Ferrannini, “Insulin resistance. A multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,” Diabetes Care, vol. 14, pp. 173–194, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. W. Kobayashi, H. Kunikata, K. Omodaka et al., “Correlation of papillomacular nerve fiber bundle thickness with central visual function in open-angle glaucoma,” Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 2015, pp. 460918–460916, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Shiga, K. Omodaka, H. Kunikata et al., “Waveform analysis of ocular blood flow and the early detection of normal tension glaucoma,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 54, pp. 7699–7706, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. D. Keenan, A. Z. Fan, and R. Klein, “Retinopathy in nondiabetic persons with the metabolic syndrome: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 147, pp. 934–944, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus