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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 3498368, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3498368
Research Article

Calcium Phosphate Product Is Associated with Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes

1Health Sciences Research Institute Germans Trias i Pujol, Camí de les Escoles S/N, 08916 Badalona, Spain
2Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Health Sciences Research Institute and University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Carretera Canyet S/N, 08916 Badalona, Spain
3Biomedical Research Institute of Lleida, University of Lleida, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
4Biostatistics and Epidemiology Unit, Biomedical Research Institute of Lleida, University of Lleida, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
5CIBER of Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Diseases (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
6Epidemiology and Public Health, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Sant Cugat, Spain
7Unitat de Suport a la Recerca Barcelona, Institut Universitari d’Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Barcelona, Spain
8Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
9Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
10Unitat de Deteccio i Tractament de Malalties Aterotrombotiques, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain
11Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Didac Mauricio; moc.liamg@oiciruamcadid

Received 3 March 2017; Revised 17 June 2017; Accepted 11 July 2017; Published 3 August 2017

Academic Editor: Andrea Flex

Copyright © 2017 Anna Ramírez-Morros et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aims. To assess whether circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and mineral metabolism-related factors (serum phosphate, calcium, and parathormone) are associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (SCA), defined as the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques (main study outcome), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without kidney disease or previous cardiovascular disease. Methods. We undertook a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study in adults with T2DM in whom we evaluated SCA. A total of 303 subjects with T2DM were included. Clinical variables and carotid ultrasound imaging were obtained. Results. We found no association of 25OHD with the presence of SCA. However, calcium phosphate (CaP; mg2/dL2) product was positively associated with the presence of carotid plaques (ORadj = 1.078; 95% CI: 1.017–1.142). An inverse association was observed between higher levels of 25OHD (≥30 ng/mL versus <20 ng/mL concentrations) and common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT; mm) (βadj ± SE = −0.055 ± 0.024). We conclude that the CaP product is independently associated with the presence of established subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM.