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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 4257875, 9 pages
Clinical Study

Microvesicles Correlated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Lowered Testosterone Levels But Were Unaltered by Testosterone Therapy

1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
2Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
3Section of Molecular Diabetes & Metabolism, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
4Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark

Correspondence should be addressed to Jaco Botha;

Received 14 October 2016; Revised 24 November 2016; Accepted 14 December 2016; Published 12 January 2017

Academic Editor: Toshiyasu Sasaoka

Copyright © 2017 Jaco Botha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aims. To investigate how circulating microvesicle phenotypes correlate with insulin sensitivity, body composition, plasma lipids, and hepatic fat accumulation. We hypothesized that changes elicited by testosterone replacement therapy are reflected in levels of microvesicles. Methods. Thirty-nine type 2 diabetic males with lowered testosterone levels were assigned to either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo and evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Microvesicles were analysed by flow cytometry and defined as lactadherin-binding particles within the 0.1–1.0 μm gate. Microvesicles of platelet, monocyte, and endothelial cell origin were identified by cell-specific markers and their expression of CD36 was investigated. Results. Triglycerides correlated positively with all investigated microvesicle phenotypes in this study (), and indicators of hepatic fat accumulation, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase correlated with platelet and endothelial microvesicles and CD36-expressing microvesicles from platelets and monocytes (). BMI, waist circumference, and fat percentage correlated with CD36-expressing monocyte microvesicles (), while insulin sensitivity did not correlate with any microvesicle phenotypes. Microvesicle levels were unaffected by testosterone therapy. Conclusions. Metabolic syndrome components and hepatic fat accumulation correlated with microvesicle phenotypes, supporting the involvement of especially CD36 on monocytes in metabolic syndrome pathogenesis. Although testosterone therapy improved body composition measures, microvesicle phenotype levels were unaffected. This trial was registered at (NCT01560546).