Sulodexide Protects Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Injury via Upregulating Klotho Expression at an Early Stage of Diabetic Kidney Disease
Effect of klotho overexpression on PTEC injury induced by AGE-BSA. (a, c) Protein and mRNA expression of klotho in PTECs after transfection with klotho plasmid (KL) or the control vector (CON). (b, d) The protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and tubulin are analyzed by Western blot in PTECs exposed to 100 μg/mL AGE-BSA or vehicle after transfection with either KL plasmid or empty vector control. Densitometry is performed for quantification, and the ratio of cleaved caspase-3 to tubulin is expressed as fold of control. (e) Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay as described in (b). (f) Bar graphs show the HAVCR1 excretions as described in (b). #, ##, and ### versus CON. versus AGE-BSA.
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