Table 2: Ewing’s tests and CAN diagnosis.


Expiration/inspiration (E/I) ratioThe patient was asked to take deep breaths for 10 minutes with frequency about 6 breaths/min.
Valsalva maneuverThe patient was asked to blow into the special manometer to maintain the pressure at about 40 mmHg for 15 s.
Postural heart rate response: maximum-minimum (30 : 15 ratio)Heart rate was measured in the horizontal position and again two minutes later after standing upright.
Postural blood pressure responseBlood pressure was measured in the horizontal position and after 1, 3, and 5 minutes after standing upright.
Isometric handgrip testThe patient was asked to grip the dynamometer for 5 minutes.