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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 6519785, 5 pages
Research Article

Gut Microbiome and Inflammation: A Study of Diabetic Inflammasome-Knockout Mice

1Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mather, CA, USA
2College of Medicine, California Northstate University, Elk Grove, CA, USA
3Texas Children’s Microbiome Center, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX, USA
4Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Sridevi Devaraj; ude.mcb@jaraved

Received 9 May 2017; Revised 16 August 2017; Accepted 3 October 2017; Published 31 December 2017

Academic Editor: Paolo Fiorina

Copyright © 2017 Roma Pahwa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aims. Diabetes is a proinflammatory state, evidenced by increased pattern recognition receptors and the inflammasome (NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain (NLRP)) complex. Recent reports have elucidated the role of the gut microbiome in diabetes, but there is limited data on the gut microbiome in NLRP-KO mice and its effect on diabetes-induced inflammation. Methods. Gut microbiome composition and biomarkers of inflammation (IL-18, serum amyloid A) were assessed in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice on a NLRP3-knockout (KO) background versus wild-type diabetic mice. Results. SAA and IL-18 levels were significantly elevated in diabetic mice (STZ) compared to control (WT) mice, and there was a significant attenuation of inflammation in diabetic NLRP3-KO mice (NLRP3-KO STZ) compared to control mice (). Principal coordinate analysis clearly separated controls, STZ, and NLRP3-KO STZ mice. Among the different phyla, there was a significant increase in the Firmicutes : Bacteroidetes ratio in the diabetic group compared to controls. When compared to the WT STZ group, the NLRP3-KO STZ group showed a significant decrease in the Firmicutes : Bacteroidetes ratio. Together, these findings indicate that interaction of the intestinal microbes with the innate immune system is a crucial factor that could modify diabetes and complications.