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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7242384, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7242384
Review Article

Role of Epigenetic Histone Modifications in Diabetic Kidney Disease Involving Renal Fibrosis

Department of Nephrology, Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Lining Miao; moc.361@55gniniloaim

Received 22 December 2016; Accepted 14 March 2017; Published 13 June 2017

Academic Editor: Wei J. Liu

Copyright © 2017 Jing Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

One of the commonest causes of end-stage renal disease is diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Renal fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in glomerular basement membranes and the tubulointerstitium, is the final manifestation of DKD. The TGF-β pathway triggers epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays a key role in the accumulation of ECM proteins in DKD. DCCT/EDIC studies have shown that DKD often persists and progresses despite glycemic control in diabetes once DKD sets in due to prior exposure to hyperglycemia called “metabolic memory.” These imply that epigenetic factors modulate kidney gene expression. There is evidence to suggest that in diabetes and hyperglycemia, epigenetic histone modifications have a significant effect in modulating renal fibrotic and ECM gene expression induced by TGF-β1, as well as its downstream profibrotic genes. Histone modifications are also implicated in renal fibrosis through its ability to regulate the EMT process triggered by TGF-β signaling. In view of this, efforts are being made to develop HAT, HDAC, and HMT inhibitors to delay, stop, or even reverse DKD. In this review, we outline the latest advances that are being made to regulate histone modifications involved in DKD.