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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 8232863, 11 pages
Clinical Study

Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Mood in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

1Loyola University Chicago, Health Sciences Campus, 2160 S. First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
2Advocate Medical Group, 3825 Highland Avenue, Suite 400, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Sue Penckofer; ude.cul@okcneps

Received 28 April 2017; Accepted 27 July 2017; Published 7 September 2017

Academic Editor: Ilaria Campesi

Copyright © 2017 Sue Penckofer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on improving mood (depression and anxiety) and health status (mental and physical) in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Fifty women with T2DM and significant depressive symptomology were enrolled into the “Sunshine Study,” where weekly vitamin D supplementation (ergocalciferol, 50,000 IU) was given to all participants for six months. The main outcomes included (1) depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, CES-D, and Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9), (2) anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety), and (3) health status (Short Form, SF-12). Results. Forty-six women (92%) completed all visits. There was a significant decrease in depression (CES-D and PHQ-9, ) and anxiety (state and trait, ). An improvement in mental health status (SF-12, ) was also found. After controlling for covariates (race, season of enrollment, baseline vitamin D, baseline depression (PHQ-9), and body mass index), the decline in depression remained significant (CES-D, ). There was a trend for a better response to supplementation for women who were not taking medications for mood (antidepressants or anxiolytics) (). Conclusions. Randomized trials to confirm that vitamin D supplementation can improve mood and health status in T2DM women are needed.