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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8404328, 10 pages
Research Article

Effects of Face-to-Face and Telephone-Based Family-Oriented Education on Self-Care Behavior and Patient Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1Maternal and Childhood Obesity Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
2Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
3Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
4Nursing Department, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
5Department of Health Information Technology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
6Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to Masumeh Hemmati Maslakpak

Received 22 July 2017; Revised 12 October 2017; Accepted 19 October 2017; Published 22 November 2017

Academic Editor: Andrea Tura

Copyright © 2017 Masumeh Hemmati Maslakpak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Education of patients and their families is the cornerstone of effective diabetes care. The present study aimed to compare the effects of a face-to-face and telephone-based family-oriented educational program on self-care behavior and patient outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods. In the present randomized controlled trial, 90 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly divided into three groups of 30 participants: a face-to-face education group, a telephone-based education group, and a control group. The educational program lasted for 3 months. Outcomes evaluated included self-care, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Results. The overall self-care scores in the intervention groups were significantly higher than that in the control group (). In addition, lipid profiles significantly improved in the interventions compared to the control (). Comparing the two interventions showed better results for the face-to-face group regarding dietary adherence and physical activity, but the latter group had comparable results in blood glucose monitoring, foot care, and cholesterol level. Conclusions. This study shows the beneficiary effects of a family-oriented education on self-care and patient outcomes. It also shows the potential value of low-cost telephone technology in delivering effective diabetes care.