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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9016148, 6 pages
Research Article

Prevalence of Positive Diabetes-Associated Autoantibodies among Type 2 Diabetes and Related Metabolic and Inflammatory Differences in a Sample of the Bulgarian Population

1University Hospital Alexandrovska, Clinic of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria
2University Hospital St. Ivan Rilski, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria
3University Hospital Alexandrovska, Central Clinical Laboratory, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

Correspondence should be addressed to Emanuela Tsvetkova Zaharieva

Received 16 February 2017; Revised 22 March 2017; Accepted 11 April 2017; Published 9 May 2017

Academic Editor: Marco Songini

Copyright © 2017 Emanuela Tsvetkova Zaharieva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of unrecognized cases with positive autoantibodies among type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a sample of the Bulgarian population and to compare some metabolic and inflammatory markers to those of patients having negative autoantibodies and subjects with latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA). Methods. Patients with T2D, patients with LADA, and control participants were enrolled. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase, anti-insulinoma-associated 2, and antizinc transporter 8 autoantibodies were assayed through ELISA. C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha were assessed. Results. Ten percent of patients with T2D had positive autoantibodies. They had lower body mass index (), worse glycemic control (HbA1c, ), and better HDL cholesterol () than those in negative autoantibodies cases. Compared to LADA, glycemia and anthropometric data did not differ significantly but metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among newly found cases with positive autoantibodies (). Their level of inflammatory markers was similar to that of patients having negative autoantibodies (), but IL-6 was higher when compared to LADA (). Conclusion. Prevalence of patients having positive autoantibodies within T2D in the analyzed sample of the Bulgarian population was 10%. They shared common metabolic features with subjects with LADA, but inflammatory phenotype was closer to that of T2D.