Table 2: Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and prevalence by area of residence and educational level in the Thai population aged ≥20 years in 2004, 2009, and 2014.

Men: % (95% CI)Women: % (95% CI)
2004 ()2009 ()2014 () value2004 ()2009 ()2014 () value

Number with diabetes2186895896282211771440
Overall prevalence7.1 (6.6, 7.6)6.8 (6.1, 7.6)8.9 (8.3, 9.5)<0.018.3 (7.9, 8.9)8.7 (8.0, 9.5)10.8 (10.2, 11.4)<0.01
Age (y)
20–393.3 (2.7, 4.1)2.2 (1.5, 3.1)2.5 (1.7, 3.7)0.163.0 (2.4, 3.7)1.6 (1.0, 2.5)3.8 (2.9, 5.1)0.23
40–599.7 (8.8, 10.7)7.5 (6.2, 8.9)10.9 (9.6, 12.5)0.0610.9 (9.9, 11.9)9.7 (8.4, 11.2)11.3 (10.0, 12.7)0.47
≥6012.8 (12.0, 13.6)13.8 (12.3, 15.5)15.3 (13.8, 17.1)<0.0116.3 (15.5, 17.2)17.6 (16.3, 19.0)20.3 (18.6, 22.0)<0.001
Area of residence
Urban9.5 (8.9, 10.2)9.3 (8.0, 10.7)8.4 (7.9, 9.0)0.889.1 (8.6, 9.7)10.3 (9.3, 11.3)10.1 (9.4, 10.8)0.02
Rural6.3 (5.7, 7.0)5.7 (4.9, 6.7)8.1 (7.2, 9.0)<0.0018.1 (7.5, 8.7)8.0 (7.0, 9.1)10.5 (9.7, 11.4)<0.001
Educational level
≤Primary7.6 (6.9, 8.3)7.3 (6.3, 8.4)8.8 (8.1, 9.4)<0.0019.4 (8.8, 10.1)10.1 (9.1, 11.2)11.1 (10.5, 11.7)<0.001
Secondary7.3 (6.4, 8.3)7.0 (5.9, 8.4)8.6 (7.8, 9.3)0.276.8 (5.7, 8.2)6.3 (5.1, 7.9)7.4 (6.6, 8.2)0.06
University8.8 (7.3, 10.6)6.1 (3.8, 9.4)7.4 (6.5, 8.5)0.865.6 (4.1, 7.6)5.8 (3.4, 9.7)5.3 (3.6, 7.7)0.73
Comorbidity
Hypertension45 (41.2, 49.1)43.0 (36.8, 49.5)46.4 (41.1, 51.8)0.6947.3 (43.7, 51.1)48.3 (42.6, 54.1)48.1 (43.6, 52.7)0.10
BP controlled < 140/90 mmHg9.7 (7.4, 12.6)24.6 (16.8, 34.5)33.6 (26.6, 41.5)<0.0116.5 (13.3, 29.3)34.4 (27.0, 42.7)45.3 (39.0, 51.6)<0.01
High LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dLNA70.5 (63.5, 76.7)68.8 (63.4, 73.7)0.67NA77.0 (71.7, 81.5)71.3 (66.5, 75.7)0.11
BMI ≥ 25–29.99 kg/m231.6 (28.2, 35.2)34.6 (28.5, 41.2)35.0 (30.1, 40.3)0.5135.5 (32.1, 39.1)41.6 (36.0, 47.4)38.1 (33.8, 42.6)0.27
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m212.1 (9.7, 14.9)14.7 (10.5, 20.1)13.5 (10.2, 17.5)20.0 (17.1, 23.3)21.4 (17.0, 26.6)19.8 (16.5, 23.5)

CI: confidence interval; BP: blood pressure; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; BMI: body mass index.