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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 9389265, 14 pages
Review Article

Patient-Related Determinants of Glycaemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: A Systematic Review

1Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
2College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3Diabetes Centre, Directorate of Health Affair, Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
4Diabetes Centre, Directorate of Health Affair, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
5The Ian Potter Library, The Alfred, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
6Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Correspondence should be addressed to Baki Billah; ude.hsanom@hallib.ikab

Received 16 June 2017; Accepted 3 December 2017; Published 25 February 2018

Academic Editor: Christian Wadsack

Copyright © 2018 Mohammed J. Alramadan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this systematic review is to assess patient-related factors affecting glycaemic control among people with type 2 diabetes in the Arabian Gulf Council countries. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched from their date of inception to May 2016. Two researchers independently identified eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. One study was population based, six recruited participants from multiple centres, and the remaining were single centred. The majority of the studies were of low to moderate quality. Factors associated with poor glycaemic control include longer duration of diabetes, low level of education, poor compliance to diet and medication, poor attitude towards the disease, poor self-management behaviour, anxiety, depression, renal impairment, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. Healthcare providers should be aware of these factors and provide appropriate education and care especially for those who have poor glycaemic control. Innovative educational programs should be implemented in the healthcare systems to improve patient compliance and practices. A variation in the results of the included studies was observed, and some potentially important risk factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, family support, and cognitive function were not adequately addressed. Further research is needed in this area.