Visfatin Induces Inflammation and Insulin Resistance via the NF-κB and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Hepatocytes
Visfatin induced proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in HepG2 cells. (a) The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β) were measured by real-time PCR. HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of visfatin (100–400 ng/mL) for 6 h. The data are of those of three independent experiments. compared to the untreated control. (b) HepG2 cells were treated with visfatin at 200 ng/mL for 24 h. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β peptides were immunocytochemically assessed. Nuclei were counterstained with hematoxylin. (c) Staining intensities were analyzed using ImageJ software. The basal intensities of cells not exposed to visfatin were set to 100%, and the relative test intensities were then calculated. The data are of those of three independent experiments. compared to the untreated control.
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