Distinct Effects of Carrageenan and High-Fat Consumption on the Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Nonobese and Obese Models of Type 2 Diabetes
PPAR-γ and PPAR-β/δ are reduced by the HFD; GRB10 is increased by carrageenan and unaffected by high fat. (a) In the mouse hepatic tissue, PPAR-γ was significantly reduced by high fat but not by carrageenan (, ). (b) In the mouse adipose tissue, PPAR-γ (, ) and PPAR-β/δ (, ) are significantly reduced following the HFD but not by carrageenan. (c) GRB10 expression was increased in the liver and pancreas of the carrageenan-treated mice but not affected by the HFD (, ). CGN = carrageenan; GRB = growth factor receptor-bound protein; PPAR = peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor.