For numerical data, the statistical analysis was conducted using two independent-samples -test (parametric), Mann-Whitney testa (nonparametric), one-way ANOVAb (parametric), and Kruskal-Wallis testc (nonparametric). Fisher’s exact test was involved for categorical data. Categorical and numerical data was presented as number and mean, respectively. A value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. BMI: body mass index; FBG: fasting blood glucose; GLIM: glimepiride; HbA1c: hemoglobin A1c; HC: healthy control; MET: metformin; : number; NT: nontherapeutic; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus.