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Journal of Engineering
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 538254, 17 pages
Research Article

Impact Analysis of Window-Wall Ratio on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

1Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
2Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
3National Centre for International Research of Low-Carbon and Green Buildings, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
4Institute of Refrigeration and Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
5Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong
6CMCU Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing 400039, China

Received 14 December 2014; Revised 23 April 2015; Accepted 30 April 2015

Academic Editor: Guy Lauriat

Copyright © 2015 Qiaoxia Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In order to assess the optimal window-wall ratio and the proper glazing type in different air conditioning system operation modes of residential buildings for each orientation in three typical cities in hot summer and cold winter zone: Chongqing, Shanghai, and Wuhan simulation models were built and analyzed using Designer’s Simulation Toolkit (DeST). The study analyzed the variation of annual heating energy demand, annual cooling energy demand, and the annual total energy consumption in different conditions, including different orientations, patterns of utilization of air conditioning system, window-wall ratio, and types of windows. The results show that the total energy consumption increased when the window-wall ratio is also increased. It appears more obvious when the window orientation is east or west. Furthermore, in terms of energy efficiency, low-emissivity (Low-E) glass performs better than hollow glass. From this study, it can be concluded that the influence and sensitivity of window-wall ratio on the total energy consumption are related to the operation mode of air conditioning system, the orientation of outside window, and the glazing types of window. The influence of the factors can be regarded as reference mode for the window-wall ratio when designing residential buildings.