Journal of Engineering / 2020 / Article / Tab 11

Review Article

Industry 4.0 Disruption and Its Neologisms in Major Industrial Sectors: A State of the Art

Table 11

The transition in globalization, leadership, and society.

TransitionGlobalizationLeadershipSociety

Level 1Globalization 1.0
Free country-to-country movement without passports
Immigration policy free from governmental limitation
Existence of international economic agreements and institutions, e.g., the International Telegraph Union and Universal Postal Union
Leadership 1.0
Charismatic
Society 1.0
Seeker gatherer

Level 2Globalization 2.0
Modern international economic enabling architecture
Multinational corporations, policy liberalization, and improved communications, cross-border integration
Leadership 2.0
Directive
Society 2.0
Peaceful agrarian

Level 3Globalization 3.0
The advent of the internet, the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the formal entry of China into the trading system
Leadership 3.0
Relational
Society 3.0
Modern social order

Level 4Globalization 4.0
Immigration policy, data privacy, and security, China’s Belt and Road Initiative, multispeed European integration
Leadership 4.0
Responsive
Society 4.0
Data social order

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.