Journal of Engineering / 2020 / Article / Tab 6

Review Article

Industry 4.0 Disruption and Its Neologisms in Major Industrial Sectors: A State of the Art

Table 6

Industry 4.0 technology applications in the agriculture and food system.

S/NTechnologyApplicationsReferences

13D printingFPM: 3D food printing (sugar, chocolate, pureed food, flat food such as pasta, pizza, and crackers, and snack from waste food)[270277]
FEFM: on-site farm tools and equipment making[276, 278]

2AIAMA: automation of farming and computer vision[279281]
IWM: automated irrigation[279, 280]
GAFPOM: digital twin, real-time data analysis, predictive analytics, recommendation systems (decision-making)[282285]
YPPF: crop, soil, and livestock monitoring, yield management[280, 282, 284287]
FPM: food (supply chain) traceability and safety[282, 283]

3ARGAFPOM: optimizing feed and cultivation management, boardroom farm planning, and remote expert assistance (training of farmers)[288290]
YPPF: precision farming and livestock (virtual fencing)[289]
WEM: agricultural health and safety (emergency response)[291]
LPPO: soil sampling[292]

4Big dataYPPF: intelligence agriculture, remote sensing, crop yield prediction, and crop selection[258, 293295]
GAFPOM: crop or farm planning and management, agricultural policy and trade, farm-to-fork traceability, and agri-food by-product supply chain management[97, 294, 296299]
CLGIP: crop disease prediction, weed detection, and plant breeding[295, 297, 300, 301]
WEM: weather forecasting[295, 302]
LPPO: estimation of soil components, temperature, and soil moisture content[295]

5BlockchainGAFPOM: food and agricultural traceability, smart contract and crop insurance, food trade, land governance and registries, financial services in agriculture, transport and agrologistics, and agricultural supply chain supervision and management (informative)[303316]
FPM: food integrity and food safety[309, 317]
WEM: waste reduction and environmental awareness[317, 318]

6Cloud computingGAFPOM: farm management and quality traceability, mobile agriculture services (M-Agric services), agri-info (delivering agriculture as a service), farm documents, and video dissemination[319322]
CLGIP: weed detection (cloud farming)[323]
YPPF: smart tunnel farming[324]

7DronesYPPF: supervision or precision agriculture, crop monitoring, harvest prediction or estimation and optimization, yield forecast and management, vegetable index extraction, and variable rate prescriptions in agriculture[46, 325335]
CLGIP: crop spraying or sprinkling (fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides), efficient scarecrow for birds and insects, disease detection or health assessment and control, pollination, and 3D crop modeling[325, 326, 328, 330332, 334, 336340]
GAFPOM: planning, production, and disaster management, insurance (agriculture claims management)[327, 333, 338, 340]
LPPO: analysis (soil profiles, field, weed presence, nutrient profile, moisture, plant health, fungal abundance, and drainage), ariel planting or seed sowing, field-level phenotyping[328, 330334, 339, 340]
IWM: drones for crop irrigation[330, 332, 333]
WEM: frost protection[337]

8IoTYPPF: monitoring of crop, soil, irrigation, weather, remote sensing, machinery, farm facilities, and field or environment, livestock, dairy, greenhouse condition and water quality, yield forecasting and prediction, and animal husbandry (smart cow farm and smart chick farm)[334, 341348]
GAFPOM: documentation and traceability, agri-supply chain management and security, and agricultural education[341344, 349]
CLGIP: crop disease and pest management, fertilization, fertigation and chemigation, crop spraying, intrusion detection in agriculture fields[343, 346, 347, 350, 351]
AMA: IoT-based agricultural machinery[342, 352]
IWM: IoT-based irrigation control systems[341, 344, 346, 347, 350, 351]
LPPO: soil sampling and mapping[346]
WEM: weather prediction (predicting the rainfall)[350]

9NanotechnologyYPPF: pathogen monitoring, pesticide detection (nanosensors, diagnostic devices, and nanobarcodes), Internet of nano-Things, and nanobisensors[353361]
CLGIP: plant bleeding (plant genetic modification), nanobiotechnology, nanofertilizers, nanobiofertilizers, nanoelements, nanoscale carrier, nanocoating, nanoencapsulation, crop production (plant protection products), nanobionics and photosynthesis, pest, weeds and disease control (nanopesticides, nanoherbicides, antimicrobial nanoparticles, nanoengineered metabolites, nanofungicides, and nanoinsecticides), hydroponics, and nanoparticles from plants for controlling plant virus[353, 355369]
IWM: water purification and pollution remediation (heavy metal removal), irrigation (nanobubbles for biofouling mitigation)[353, 354, 356, 357, 362, 364, 370]
LPPO: soil improvement (water/liquid retention), soil remediation (heavy metal removal)[353, 356, 358]
FPS: safety and labelling, package material with nanosensors, nanoparticles, smart/intelligence packaging, nanoadditives, control and nutraceutical delivery, nanocoding of plastics and paper materials, nanoencapsulation and target delivery, nanocomposites, nanoplates, nanoclay, nanolaminates, edible film/coating, and pesticide, pathogen, and toxin detection[355, 359, 361, 363, 365, 366, 371]
FPM: food security; nanoresearch (nanodevices and nanobiotechnology), nanoscale agroproducts (nanocellulose), nanocomposites, nanofood, color additives, additives or polymer aids, preservatives, flavor carrier, marking fruits and vegetables, anticaking, and nutritional dietary supplements[354, 361, 364, 368, 371]
WEM: agrowaste reduction and high-value product (biofuel), biochar nanoparticle[354, 357, 369]

10RoboticsCLGIP: weed detection and control, target spraying, pest and disease monitoring and control, pruning, thinning, mowing, pollination, and fertilization[372379]
YPPF: harvesting (picking of fruits), crop status monitoring, counting crops, and classification of plant species[372, 373, 375, 376, 378, 380, 381]
LPPO: seeding, sowing, and transplanting, phenotyping, land tilling (plowing, harrowing, rototilling, and cultivating), and soil and field analysis[373, 378, 379, 381]
AMA: autonomous navigation (field layout planning, vehicle route, and motion planning), computer vision, and remote-control systems[375, 378, 379, 381]
IWM: irrigation robots[378]
GAFPOM: livestock management (dairy cattle, pigs, and chickens), milking animals, removing waste from animal cubicle pens, carrying and moving feedstuffs, manipulators, and transportation[379, 382]
FPS: labelling and tracking of food products[382]

11SimulationCLGIP: development of process-based biophysical models of crops and livestock, crop growth simulation model[383386]
GAFPOM: statistical models based on historical observations and economic optimization, simulation models at household and regional to global scales, simulation of farm machinery operation (optimization of tillage and sowing operations), multiagent modeling and simulation of farmland use[383, 387, 388]
WEM: interdisciplinary climate change impact assessment on agriculture, water resources, forestry, and economy through simulations[389]

12Synthetic biologyCLGIP: synthetic photorespiratory pathway, modifying and creating new systems, advancing pest control (engineered insects), precise antimicrobials (Eligobiotics), designing crops for fuel production, plant breeding, synthetic genomics, metabolites in microorganisms (vitamins, nutraceuticals, and probiotics), pest and disease control (control of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens, parasitic weeds, and insect vectors of plant pathogens. Synthetic chloroplast genome, a synplastome for pest resistance), cellular agriculture (plant cells, animal cells, and microbial cells), and nonfertilization (synthetic nitrogen-fixing bacteria)[390396]
FPM: food processing monitors, biosafety, and biosecurity[391]
WEM: bioremediation (waste and pollution control)[393, 397]
YPPF: biosensors and molecular circuitry[393, 396]

FPM: food processing and management, FEFM: farm equipment and facility maintenance, AMA: agriculture machinery automation, GAFPOM: general agri-food planning and operation management, YPPF: yield prediction and precision farming, WEM: weather and environment management, LPPO: land preparation and planting optimization, CLGIP: crop and livestock growth, improvement and protection, FPS: food packaging and storage, and IWM: irrigation and water management.

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