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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 149016, 13 pages
Research Article

A Three-Dimensional Wireless Indoor Localization System

1School of Information Security Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2Department of Computer Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA
3Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA

Received 6 March 2014; Accepted 3 June 2014; Published 20 July 2014

Academic Editor: Zhe Yang

Copyright © 2014 Ping Yi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Indoor localization, an emerging technology in location based service (LBS), is now playing a more and more important role both in commercial and in civilian industry. Global position system (GPS) is the most popular solution in outdoor localization field, and the accuracy is around 10 meter error in positioning. However, with complex obstacles in buildings, problems rise in the “last mile” of localization field, which encourage a momentum of indoor localization. The traditional indoor localization system is either range-based or fingerprinting-based, which requires a lot of time and efforts to do the predeployment. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional on-demand indoor localization system (3D-ODIL), which can be fingerprint-free and deployed rapidly in a multistorey building. The 3D-ODIL consists of two phases, vertical localization and horizontal localization. On vertical direction, we propose multistorey differential (MSD) algorithm and implement it to fulfill the vertical localization, which can greatly reduce the number of anchors deployed. We use enhanced field division (EFD) algorithm to conduct the horizontal localization. EFD algorithm is a range-free algorithm, the main idea of which is to dynamically divide the field within different signature area and position the target. The accuracy and performance have been validated through our extensive analysis and systematic experiments.