Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering / 2016 / Article / Tab 5

Research Article

Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis and Psychoacoustic Model with Self-Synchronization

Table 5

Robustness evaluation using BERs (%): comparison of the conventional SVD-based method (SVD) [23], SSA-based scheme (SSA) [28], SSA-based scheme with the differential evolution (SSA.DE) [29], proposed scheme without the automatic parameter estimation (Prop.), and proposed one with the automatic parameter estimation (Prop.APE) when attacks (i.e., MP3 and MP4 compression, white-Gaussian-noise addition (AWGN), resampling with 16 and 22.05 kHz (RES 16 and RES 22.05, resp.), and band-pass filtering (BPF)) were performed. AV and SD are average and standard deviation, respectively.

#01 #07 #13 #28 #37 #49 #54 #57 #64 #85 #91 #100 AV SD

No Attack SVD 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000.00 0.00
SSA 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.00 0.67 0.00 2.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.670.67 1.30
SSA.DE 0.00 0.83 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.83 1.67 6.67 1.67 0.83 0.83 0.831.25 1.79
Prop. 0.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.67 0.00 12.67 1.33 0.67 1.33 0.671.61 3.54
Prop.APE 5.33 0.00 0.67 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.00 12.67 2.67 0.00 3.33 1.332.50 3.70

MP3 SVD 47.22 98.33 70.56 87.78 82.50 33.06 41.94 33.61 95.83 18.89 74.72 23.6159.00 29.03
SSA 1.33 2.00 26.67 0.67 2.67 2.67 5.33 0.67 4.67 0.67 2.67 1.334.28 7.21
SSA.DE 0.00 2.50 15.00 3.33 3.33 2.50 8.33 5.00 1.67 6.67 9.17 4.175.14 4.11
Prop. 2.00 12.00 26.67 2.00 6.67 7.33 12.00 36.67 3.33 8.67 10.00 4.0010.94 10.51
Prop.APE 12.00 6.00 17.33 4.67 4.67 7.33 8.67 21.33 0.67 4.67 24.67 1.339.44 7.80

MP4 SVD 0.28 0.00 13.89 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.281.20 4.00
SSA 0.67 1.33 16.00 0.67 4.00 0.67 3.33 0.67 2.67 0.00 2.67 1.332.83 4.33
SSA.DE 0.83 1.67 25.83 2.50 3.33 0.00 12.50 6.67 4.17 2.50 10.83 7.506.53 7.23
Prop. 0.00 2.00 16.00 0.67 3.33 2.00 4.00 20.00 5.33 2.00 5.33 2.005.22 6.25
Prop.APE 2.67 6.00 10.00 3.33 6.67 8.00 0.00 21.33 12.67 0.00 8.67 0.006.61 6.24

BPF SVD 25.83 48.61 47.78 43.61 56.67 21.39 40.56 28.89 62.22 0.83 50.56 30.0038.08 17.30
SSA 0.00 0.67 40.00 0.00 12.67 0.67 1.33 2.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.005.00 11.57
SSA.DE 5.00 1.67 40.00 2.50 5.00 2.50 10.83 25.00 3.33 2.50 15.00 5.839.93 11.68
Prop. 0.67 0.67 40.00 0.00 14.00 0.00 0.00 15.33 2.67 0.00 2.67 0.676.39 11.90
Prop.APE 0.67 6.00 52.00 3.33 15.33 10.67 3.33 24.67 12.67 0.00 8.00 1.3311.50 14.64

AWGN SVD 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000.00 0.00
SSA 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.00 0.67 0.00 2.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.670.67 1.30
SSA.DE 0.00 0.83 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.83 1.67 6.67 1.67 0.83 0.83 0.831.25 1.79
Prop. 0.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.67 0.00 12.67 1.33 0.67 1.33 0.671.61 3.54
Prop.APE 5.33 0.00 0.67 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.00 12.67 2.67 0.00 3.33 1.332.50 3.70

RES 16 SVD 5.56 0.83 39.44 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.56 1.67 0.28 1.674.17 11.22
SSA 1.33 0.00 26.67 0.00 8.00 0.00 3.33 0.00 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.673.39 7.69
SSA.DE 1.67 0.00 37.50 0.83 3.33 1.67 3.33 7.50 1.67 0.83 5.83 2.505.56 10.29
Prop. 0.67 0.00 27.33 0.00 15.33 0.67 0.00 13.33 2.67 0.67 0.67 0.675.17 8.79
Prop.APE 6.67 0.00 30.67 3.33 36.00 2.00 0.00 17.33 6.67 0.00 2.00 1.338.83 12.47

RES 2205 SVD 1.67 0.00 12.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.671.35 3.67
SSA 0.67 0.00 5.33 0.00 4.67 0.00 2.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.671.17 1.95
SSA.DE 0.83 0.83 2.50 0.00 2.50 0.00 3.33 7.50 1.67 0.83 0.83 1.671.87 2.05
Prop. 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.00 6.67 0.67 0.00 12.67 2.00 0.67 1.33 0.672.39 3.81
Prop.APE 1.33 0.00 2.00 0.00 42.00 4.67 0.00 14.00 6.00 0.00 1.33 1.336.06 12.01

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