Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. On the Capacity of MIMO Weibull-Gamma Fading Channels in Low SNR Regime Wed, 30 Nov 2016 13:08:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/9304597/ We present capacity analysis for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system under a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. We have selected a composite fading channel that considers Weibull fading for multipath and gamma fading for shadowing. We have presented the analysis in a detailed form for three different techniques, namely, spatial multiplexing (SM) with optimal detection, SM with minimum mean square error (MMSE) detection, and orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBC). Because capacity analysis at arbitrary signal-to-noise (SNR) is stringent, a low SNR regime is considered to achieve a positive rate and wideband slope. The improvement is the result of minimizing energy per information bit . For the first time, closed-form expressions are evaluated for the capacity of MIMO systems at low SNR under WG fading channels which facilitate the performance comparison for proposed techniques. Keerti Tiwari, Davinder S. Saini, and Sunil V. Bhooshan Copyright © 2016 Keerti Tiwari et al. All rights reserved. Contact-Free Cognitive Load Recognition Based on Eye Movement Wed, 30 Nov 2016 11:50:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/1601879/ The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit human’s cognitive load as high and low state in two light intense environments and recorded the eye movement data in this whole process. Twelve salient features of the eye movement were selected by using statistic test. Algorithms for processing some features are proposed for increasing the recognition rate. Finally we used the support vector machine (SVM) to classify high and low cognitive load. The experimental results show that the method can achieve 90.25% accuracy in light controlled condition. Xin Liu, Tong Chen, Guoqiang Xie, and Guangyuan Liu Copyright © 2016 Xin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis and Psychoacoustic Model with Self-Synchronization Wed, 30 Nov 2016 06:35:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/5067313/ This paper proposes a blind, inaudible, and robust audio watermarking scheme based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and the psychoacoustic model 1 (ISO/IEC 11172-3). In this work, SSA is used to analyze the host signals and to extract the singular spectra. A watermark is embedded into the host signals by modifying the singular spectra which are in the convex part of the singular spectrum curve so that this part becomes concave. This modification certainly affects the inaudibility and robustness properties of the watermarking scheme. To satisfy both properties, the modified part of the singular spectrum is determined by a novel parameter selection method based on the psychoacoustic model. The test results showed that the proposed scheme achieves not only inaudibility and robustness but also blindness. In addition, this work showed that the extraction process of a variant of the proposed scheme can extract the watermark without assuming to know the frame positions in advance and without embedding additional synchronization code into the audio content. Jessada Karnjana, Masashi Unoki, Pakinee Aimmanee, and Chai Wutiwiwatchai Copyright © 2016 Jessada Karnjana et al. All rights reserved. A Complete Subspace Analysis of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Its Robust Implementation Wed, 30 Nov 2016 06:32:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/3919472/ Linear discriminant analysis has been widely studied in data mining and pattern recognition. However, when performing the eigen-decomposition on the matrix pair (within-class scatter matrix and between-class scatter matrix) in some cases, one can find that there exist some degenerated eigenvalues, thereby resulting in indistinguishability of information from the eigen-subspace corresponding to some degenerated eigenvalue. In order to address this problem, we revisit linear discriminant analysis in this paper and propose a stable and effective algorithm for linear discriminant analysis in terms of an optimization criterion. By discussing the properties of the optimization criterion, we find that the eigenvectors in some eigen-subspaces may be indistinguishable if the degenerated eigenvalue occurs. Inspired from the idea of the maximum margin criterion (MMC), we embed MMC into the eigen-subspace corresponding to the degenerated eigenvalue to exploit discriminability of the eigenvectors in the eigen-subspace. Since the proposed algorithm can deal with the degenerated case of eigenvalues, it not only handles the small-sample-size problem but also enables us to select projection vectors from the null space of the between-class scatter matrix. Extensive experiments on several face images and microarray data sets are conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm in terms of the classification performance, and experimental results show that our method has smaller standard deviations than other methods in most cases. Zhicheng Lu and Zhizheng Liang Copyright © 2016 Zhicheng Lu and Zhizheng Liang. All rights reserved. A Russian Keyword Spotting System Based on Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition and Linguistic Knowledge Tue, 29 Nov 2016 13:26:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4062786/ The paper describes the key concepts of a word spotting system for Russian based on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. Key algorithms and system settings are described, including the pronunciation variation algorithm, and the experimental results on the real-life telecom data are provided. The description of system architecture and the user interface is provided. The system is based on CMU Sphinx open-source speech recognition platform and on the linguistic models and algorithms developed by Speech Drive LLC. The effective combination of baseline statistic methods, real-world training data, and the intensive use of linguistic knowledge led to a quality result applicable to industrial use. Valentin Smirnov, Dmitry Ignatov, Michael Gusev, Mais Farkhadov, Natalia Rumyantseva, and Mukhabbat Farkhadova Copyright © 2016 Valentin Smirnov et al. All rights reserved. An Algorithm of Traffic Perception of DDoS Attacks against SOA Based on Time United Conditional Entropy Sun, 27 Nov 2016 10:28:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/2579274/ DDoS attacks can prevent legitimate users from accessing the service by consuming resource of the target nodes, whose availability of network and service is exposed to a significant threat. Therefore, DDoS traffic perception is the premise and foundation of the whole system security. In this paper the method of DDoS traffic perception for SOA network based on time united conditional entropy was proposed. According to many-to-one relationship mapping between the source IP address and destination IP addresses of DDoS attacks, traffic characteristics of services are analyzed based on conditional entropy. The algorithm is provided with perception ability of DDoS attacks on SOA services by introducing time dimension. Simulation results show that the novel method can realize DDoS traffic perception with analyzing abrupt variation of conditional entropy in time dimension. Yuntao Zhao, Hengchi Liu, and Yongxin Feng Copyright © 2016 Yuntao Zhao et al. All rights reserved. First-Order Statistical Characteristics of Macrodiversity System with Three Microdiversity MRC Receivers in the Presence of - Short-Term Fading and Gamma Long-Term Fading Wed, 23 Nov 2016 06:07:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/9689586/ Macrodiversity system with macrodiversity SC receiver and three microdiversity MRC (maximum ratio combining) receivers is considered. Independent k-μ short-term fading and correlated Gamma long-term fading are present at the inputs of microdiversity MRC receivers. For this model, the probability density function and the cumulative density function of microdiversity MRC receivers and macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelopes are calculated. Influences of Gamma shadowing severity, k-μ multipath fading severity, Rician factor and correlation coefficient at probability density function, and cumulative density function of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelopes are graphically presented. Branimir Jaksic, Mihajlo Stefanovic, Danijela Aleksic, Dragan Radenkovic, and Sinisa Minic Copyright © 2016 Branimir Jaksic et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Dictionary Learning Model with PT-HLBP for Palmprint Recognition Tue, 22 Nov 2016 13:27:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/6423834/ A novel projective dictionary pair learning (PDPL) model with statistical local features for palmprint recognition is proposed. Pooling technique is used to enhance the invariance of hierarchical local binary pattern (PT-HLBP) for palmprint feature extraction. PDPL is employed to learn an analysis dictionary and a synthesis dictionary which are utilized for image discrimination and representation. The proposed algorithm has been tested by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) database (v2) and ideal recognition accuracy can be achieved. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm not only greatly reduces the time complexity in training and testing phase, but also exhibits good robustness for image rotation and corrosion. Xiumei Guo and Weidong Zhou Copyright © 2016 Xiumei Guo and Weidong Zhou. All rights reserved. Speaker Recognition Using Wavelet Cepstral Coefficient, I-Vector, and Cosine Distance Scoring and Its Application for Forensics Sun, 06 Nov 2016 08:59:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4908412/ An important application of speaker recognition is forensics. However, the accuracy of speaker recognition in forensic cases often drops off rapidly because of the ill effect of ambient noise, variable channel, different duration of speech data, and so on. Therefore, finding a robust speaker recognition model is very important for forensics. This paper builds a new speaker recognition model based on wavelet cepstral coefficient (WCC), i-vector, and cosine distance scoring (CDS). This model firstly uses the WCC to transform the speech into spectral feature vecors and then uses those spectral feature vectors to train the i-vectors that represent the speeches having different durations. CDS is used to compare the i-vectors to give out the evidence. Moreover, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the within-class covariance normalization (WCNN) are added to the CDS algorithm to deal with the channel variability problem. Finally, the likelihood ratio estimates the strength of the evidence. We use the TIMIT database to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively solve the troubles of forensic scenario, but the time cost of the method is high. Lei Lei and She Kun Copyright © 2016 Lei Lei and She Kun. All rights reserved. Modelling and Automated Implementation of Optimal Power Saving Strategies in Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architectures Wed, 02 Nov 2016 11:10:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4237350/ This paper focuses on how to efficiently reduce power consumption in coarse-grained reconfigurable designs, to allow their effective adoption in heterogeneous architectures supporting and accelerating complex and highly variable multifunctional applications. We propose a design flow for this kind of architectures that, besides their automatic customization, is also capable of determining their optimal power management support. Power and clock gating implementation costs are estimated in advance, before their physical implementation, on the basis of the functional, technological, and architectural parameters of the baseline design. Experimental results, on 90 and 45 nm CMOS technologies, demonstrate that the proposed approach guides the designer towards optimal implementation. Francesca Palumbo, Tiziana Fanni, Carlo Sau, Paolo Meloni, and Luigi Raffo Copyright © 2016 Francesca Palumbo et al. All rights reserved. A Model for Analyzing a Five-Phase Fractional-Slot Permanent Magnet Tubular Linear Motor with Modified Winding Function Approach Thu, 27 Oct 2016 08:32:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4501046/ This paper presents a model for analyzing a five-phase fractional-slot permanent magnet tubular linear motor (FSPMTLM) with the modified winding function approach (MWFA). MWFA is a fast modeling method and it gives deep insight into the calculations of the following parameters: air-gap magnetic field, inductances, flux linkages, and detent force, which are essential in modeling the motor. First, using a magnetic circuit model, the air-gap magnetic density is computed from stator magnetomotive force (MMF), flux barrier, and mover geometry. Second, the inductances, flux linkages, and detent force are analytically calculated using modified winding function and the air-gap magnetic density. Finally, a model has been established with the five-phase Park transformation and simulated. The calculations of detent force reveal that the end-effect force is the main component of the detent force. This is also proven by finite element analysis on the motor. The accuracy of the model is validated by comparing with the results obtained using semianalytical method (SAM) and measurements to analyze the motor’s transient characteristics. In addition, the proposed method requires less computation time. Bo Zhang, Rong Qi, Hui Lin, and Julius Mwaniki Copyright © 2016 Bo Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Improving Robustness of Biometric Identity Determination with Digital Watermarking Thu, 27 Oct 2016 08:07:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/6390741/ The determination of an identity from noisy biometric measurements is a continuing challenge. In many applications, such as identity-based encryption, the identity needs to be known with virtually 100% certainty. The determination of identities with such precision from face images taken under a wide range of natural situations is still an unsolved problem. We propose a digital watermarking based method to aid face recognizers to tackle this problem in applications. In particular, we suggest embedding multiple face dependent watermarks into an image to serve as expert knowledge on the corresponding identities to identity-based schemes. This knowledge could originate, for example, from the tagging of those people on a social network. In our proposal, a single payload consists of a correction vector that can be added to the extracted biometric template to compile a nearly noiseless identity. It also supports the removal of a person from the image. If a particular face is censored, the corresponding identity is also removed. Based on our experiments, our method is robust against JPEG compression, image filtering, and occlusion and enables a reliable determination of an identity without side information. Juha Partala, Angelos Fylakis, Anu Pramila, Anja Keskinarkaus, and Tapio Seppänen Copyright © 2016 Juha Partala et al. All rights reserved. Assessing Availability in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks Based on Targets’ Perimeters Coverage Wed, 26 Oct 2016 08:47:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/9312439/ Availability in wireless visual sensor networks is a major design issue that is directly related to applications monitoring quality. For targets monitoring, visual sensors may be deployed to cover most or all of targets, and monitoring quality may be focused on how well a set of targets are being covered. However, targets may have different dimensions and it is expected that large targets may be only partially viewed by source nodes, which may affect coverage quality and lead to a state of unavailability. In this context, this article analyzes the effect of target’s size on effective coverage in wireless visual sensor networks. A new coverage metric, the Effective Target Viewing (ETV), is proposed to measure monitoring quality over a set of targets, which is exploited as a fundamental parameter for availability assessment. Results show that ETV can be used as a practical coverage metric when assessing availability in wireless visual sensor networks. Daniel G. Costa and Cristian Duran-Faundez Copyright © 2016 Daniel G. Costa and Cristian Duran-Faundez. All rights reserved. Intermediate Frequency Digital Receiver Based on Multi-FPGA System Tue, 25 Oct 2016 13:39:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/6123832/ Aiming at high-cost, large-size, and inflexibility problems of traditional analog intermediate frequency receiver in the aerospace telemetry, tracking, and command (TTC) system, we have proposed a new intermediate frequency (IF) digital receiver based on Multi-FPGA system in this paper. Digital beam forming (DBF) is realized by coordinated rotation digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm. An experimental prototype has been developed on a compact Multi-FPGA system with three FPGAs to receive 16 channels of IF digital signals. Our experimental results show that our proposed scheme is able to provide a great convenience for the design of IF digital receiver, which offers a valuable reference for real-time, low power, high density, and small size receiver design. Chengchang Zhang and Lihong Zhang Copyright © 2016 Chengchang Zhang and Lihong Zhang. All rights reserved. A Searching Method of Candidate Segmentation Point in SPRINT Classification Mon, 24 Oct 2016 12:25:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/2168478/ SPRINT algorithm is a classical algorithm for building a decision tree that is a widely used method of data classification. However, the SPRINT algorithm has high computational cost in the calculation of attribute segmentation. In this paper, an improved SPRINT algorithm is proposed, which searches better candidate segmentation point for the discrete and continuous attributes. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the computation cost and improve the efficiency of the algorithm by improving the segmentation of continuous attributes and discrete attributes. Zhihao Wang, Junfang Wang, Yonghua Huo, Yanjun Tuo, and Yang Yang Copyright © 2016 Zhihao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Joint Radio Resource Allocation and Base Station Location Selection in OFDMA Based Private Wireless Access Networks for Smart Grid Sun, 23 Oct 2016 12:33:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/7948018/ This paper studies the base stations deployment problem in orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) based private wireless access networks for smart grid (SG). Firstly, we analyze the differences between private wireless access networks for SG and public cellular access networks. Then, we propose scheduling and power control based algorithms for the radio resource allocation subproblem and K-means, simulated annealing (SA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based algorithms for the base station (BS) location selection subproblem and iterate over these two sets of algorithms to solve the target problem. Simulation results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the target problem. Specifically, the combination of power control based resource allocation algorithm and PSO based location selection algorithm is recommended. Peng Du and Yuan Zhang Copyright © 2016 Peng Du and Yuan Zhang. All rights reserved. A Novel Framework for Interactive Visualization and Analysis of Hyperspectral Image Data Thu, 13 Oct 2016 11:55:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/2635124/ Multispectral and hyperspectral images are well established in various fields of application like remote sensing, astronomy, and microscopic spectroscopy. In recent years, the availability of new sensor designs, more powerful processors, and high-capacity storage further opened this imaging modality to a wider array of applications like medical diagnosis, agriculture, and cultural heritage. This necessitates new tools that allow general analysis of the image data and are intuitive to users who are new to hyperspectral imaging. We introduce a novel framework that bundles new interactive visualization techniques with powerful algorithms and is accessible through an efficient and intuitive graphical user interface. We visualize the spectral distribution of an image via parallel coordinates with a strong link to traditional visualization techniques, enabling new paradigms in hyperspectral image analysis that focus on interactive raw data exploration. We combine novel methods for supervised segmentation, global clustering, and nonlinear false-color coding to assist in the visual inspection. Our framework coined Gerbil is open source and highly modular, building on established methods and being easily extensible for application-specific needs. It satisfies the need for a general, consistent software framework that tightly integrates analysis algorithms with an intuitive, modern interface to the raw image data and algorithmic results. Gerbil finds its worldwide use in academia and industry alike with several thousand downloads originating from 45 countries. Johannes Jordan, Elli Angelopoulou, and Andreas Maier Copyright © 2016 Johannes Jordan et al. All rights reserved. Cross-Layer Control with Worst Case Delay Guarantees in Multihop Wireless Networks Mon, 10 Oct 2016 12:15:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/5762851/ The delay guarantee is a challenge to meet different real-time requirements in applications of backpressure-based wireless multihop networks, and therefore, researchers are interested in the possibility of providing bounded end-to-end delay. In this paper, a new cross-layer control algorithm with worst case delay guarantees is proposed. The utility maximization algorithm is developed using a Lyapunov optimization framework. Virtual queues that ensure the worst case delay of nondropped packets are designed. It is proved through rigorous theoretical analyses and verified by simulations that the time average overall utility achieved by the new algorithm can be arbitrarily close to the optimal solution with finite queue backlogs. The simulation results evaluated with Matlab show that the proposed algorithm achieves higher throughput utility with fewer data dropped compared with the existing work. Shu Fan and Honglin Zhao Copyright © 2016 Shu Fan and Honglin Zhao. All rights reserved. A Novel Method for Constructing Grid Multi-Wing Butterfly Chaotic Attractors via Nonlinear Coupling Control Wed, 05 Oct 2016 12:34:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/9143989/ A new method is presented to construct grid multi-wing butterfly chaotic attractors. Based on the three-dimensional Lorenz system, two first-order differential equations are added along with one linear coupling controller, respectively. And a piecewise linear function, which is taken into the linear coupling controller, is designed to form a nonlinear coupling controller; thus a five-dimensional chaotic system is produced, which is able to generate gird multi-wing butterfly chaotic attractors. Through the analysis of the equilibrium points, Lyapunov exponent spectrums, bifurcation diagrams, and Poincaré mapping in this system, the chaotic characteristic of the system is verified. Apart from the research above, an electronic circuit is designed to implement the system. The circuit experimental results are in accordance with the results of numerical simulation, which verify the availability and feasibility of this method. Yun Huang Copyright © 2016 Yun Huang. All rights reserved. Innovations in Communications Security Tue, 04 Oct 2016 11:46:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4743084/ Mazdak Zamani, Isao Echizen, and Arash Habibi Lashkari Copyright © 2016 Mazdak Zamani et al. All rights reserved. An Optimization Synchronization Algorithm for TDDM Signal Mon, 26 Sep 2016 16:41:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/6349341/ The time division data modulation (TDDM) mechanism is recommended to improve the communications quality and enhance the antijamming capability of the spread spectrum communication system, which will be used in the next generation global navigation satellite (GNSS) systems. According to the principle and the characteristics of TDDM signal, an optimization synchronization algorithm is proposed. In the new algorithm, the synchronization accuracy and environmental adaptability have been improved with the special local sequence structure, the multicorrelation processing, and the proportion threshold mechanism. Thus, the inversion estimation formula was established. The simulation results demonstrate that the new algorithm can eliminate the illegibility threat in the synchronization process and can adapt to a lower SNR. In addition, this algorithm is better than the traditional algorithms in terms of synchronization accuracy and adaptability. Fang Liu and Yongxin Feng Copyright © 2016 Fang Liu and Yongxin Feng. All rights reserved. Low Actuating Voltage Spring-Free RF MEMS SPDT Switch Mon, 26 Sep 2016 11:15:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/7984548/ RF MEMS devices are known to be superior to their solid state counterparts in terms of power consumption and electromagnetic response. Major limitations of MEMS devices are their low switching speed, high actuation voltage, larger size, and reliability. In the present paper, a see-saw single pole double throw (SPDT) RF MEMS switch based on anchor-free mechanism is proposed which eliminates the above-mentioned disadvantages. The proposed switch has a switching time of 394 nsec with actuation voltage of 5 V. Size of the SPDT switch is reduced by utilizing a single series capacitive switch compared to conventional switches with capacitive and series combinations. Reliability of the switch is improved by adding floating metal and reducing stiction between the actuating bridge and transmission line. Insertion loss and isolation are better than −0.6 dB and −20 dB, respectively, for 1 GHz to 20 GHz applications. Deepak Bansal, Anuroop Bajpai, Prem Kumar, Maninder Kaur, and Kamljit Rangra Copyright © 2016 Deepak Bansal et al. All rights reserved. A Low Noise, Low Power Phase-Locked Loop, Using Optimization Methods Mon, 19 Sep 2016 14:09:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/8202581/ A divider-less, low power, and low jitter phase-locked loop (PLL) is presented in this paper. An extra simple open loop phase frequency detector (PFD) is proposed which reduces the power consumption and increases the overall speed. A novel bulk driven Wilson charge pump circuit, whose performance is enhanced by some optimization algorithms, is also introduced to get high output swing and high current matching. The designed PLL is utilized in a CMOS process with a 1.8 V power supply. It has a wide locking range frequency of 500 MHz to 5 GHz. In addition, through the use of a dead-zone-less PFD and a divider-less PLL, the overall jitter is decreased significantly. Noushin Ghaderi, Hamid Reza Erfani-jazi, and Mehdi Mohseni-Mirabadi Copyright © 2016 Noushin Ghaderi et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Complex-Valued Independent Component Analysis Based on Second-Order Statistics Thu, 08 Sep 2016 17:37:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/2467198/ This paper proposes a two-stage fast convergence adaptive complex-valued independent component analysis based on second-order statistics of complex-valued source signals. The first stage constructs a cost function by extending the real-valued whiten cost function to a complex-valued domain and optimizes the cost function using a complex-valued gradient. The second stage uses the restriction that the pseudocovariance matrix of the separated signal is a diagonal matrix to construct the cost function and the geodesic method is used to optimize the cost function. Compared with other adaptive complex-valued independent component analysis, the proposed method shows a faster convergence rate and smaller error. Computer simulations were performed on synthesized signals and communications signals. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm. Yanfei Jia and Xiaodong Yang Copyright © 2016 Yanfei Jia and Xiaodong Yang. All rights reserved. Design and Verification of Secure Mutual Authentication Protocols for Mobile Multihop Relay WiMAX Networks against Rogue Base/Relay Stations Thu, 08 Sep 2016 08:33:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/9859830/ Mobile multihop relay (MMR) WiMAX networks have attracted lots of interest in the wireless communication industry recently because of its scalable coverage, improved data rates, and relatively low cost. However, security of MMR WiMAX networks is the main challenge to be addressed. In this paper, we first identify several possible attacks on MMR WiMAX networks in which a rogue base station (BS) or relay station (RS) can get authenticated and gain control over the connections and show that the current standard does not address this problem well. We then propose a set of new authentication protocols for protecting MMR WiMAX networks from rogue BS attack, rogue RS attack, and suppress-replay attack. Our protocols can provide centralized authentication by using a trusted authentication server to support mutual authentication between RS and BS, between RS and RS, and between mobile station (MS) and RS. Moreover, our protocols can also provide distributed authentication with a license issued by the trusted server. We use a formal tool called Scyther to analyze and verify the security properties of our protocols. The results show that our protocols can counter rogue BS and RS attacks and suppress-replay attack and are not susceptible to any known attacks. Jie Huang and Chin-Tser Huang Copyright © 2016 Jie Huang and Chin-Tser Huang. All rights reserved. User Adaptive and Context-Aware Smart Home Using Pervasive and Semantic Technologies Tue, 30 Aug 2016 16:33:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4789803/ Ubiquitous Computing is moving the interaction away from the human-computer paradigm and towards the creation of smart environments that users and things, from the IoT perspective, interact with. User modeling and adaptation is consistently present having the human user as a constant but pervasive interaction introduces the need for context incorporation towards context-aware smart environments. The current article discusses both aspects of the user modeling and adaptation as well as context awareness and incorporation into the smart home domain. Users are modeled as fuzzy personas and these models are semantically related. Context information is collected via sensors and corresponds to various aspects of the pervasive interaction such as temperature and humidity, but also smart city sensors and services. This context information enhances the smart home environment via the incorporation of user defined home rules. Semantic Web technologies support the knowledge representation of this ecosystem while the overall architecture has been experimentally verified using input from the SmartSantander smart city and applying it to the SandS smart home within FIRE and FIWARE frameworks. Aggeliki Vlachostergiou, Georgios Stratogiannis, George Caridakis, George Siolas, and Phivos Mylonas Copyright © 2016 Aggeliki Vlachostergiou et al. All rights reserved. Two Improved Cancellation Techniques for Direct-Conversion Receivers Tue, 30 Aug 2016 09:29:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4253125/ To solve the problems of carrier leakage and DC offset in direct-conversion receiver (DCR) system, the paper proposed two kinds of improved technology to overcome the problems in DCR system. One is the RF carrier cancellation technology; the traditional cancellation technology based on lumped parameter filter can be easily influenced by distribution parameters, the improved circuits use a 3 db bridge to realize a 180-degree phase shifter, and the method can adapt to a wider range of RF frequency. Another is DC offset cancellation technique; a novel DC servo loop circuit is proposed to replace the traditional AC-coupled amplifier circuit. It can improve the integrity of the baseband signal and reduces the complexity of the subsequent software algorithm. Experimental results show that two kinds of improved technology can improve the performance of DCR and expand its scope of application. Xueyuan Hao and Xiaohong Yan Copyright © 2016 Xueyuan Hao and Xiaohong Yan. All rights reserved. Image Blocking Encryption Algorithm Based on Laser Chaos Synchronization Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:25:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4138654/ In view of the digital image transmission security, based on laser chaos synchronization and Arnold cat map, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed. Based on pixel values of plain image a parameter is generated to influence the secret key. Sequences of the drive system and response system are pretreated by the same method and make image blocking encryption scheme for plain image. Finally, pixels position are scrambled by general Arnold transformation. In decryption process, the chaotic synchronization accuracy is fully considered and the relationship between the effect of synchronization and decryption is analyzed, which has characteristics of high precision, higher efficiency, simplicity, flexibility, and better controllability. The experimental results show that the encryption algorithm image has high security and good antijamming performance. Shu-Ying Wang, Jian-Feng Zhao, Xian-Feng Li, and Li-Tao Zhang Copyright © 2016 Shu-Ying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Hand Depth Image Denoising and Superresolution via Noise-Aware Dictionaries Thu, 18 Aug 2016 13:55:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/6587162/ This paper proposes a two-stage method for hand depth image denoising and superresolution, using bilateral filters and learned dictionaries via noise-aware orthogonal matching pursuit (NAOMP) based K-SVD. The bilateral filtering phase recovers singular points and removes artifacts on silhouettes by averaging depth data using neighborhood pixels on which both depth difference and RGB similarity restrictions are imposed. The dictionary learning phase uses NAOMP for training dictionaries which separates faithful depth from noisy data. Compared with traditional OMP, NAOMP adds a residual reduction step which effectively weakens the noise term within the residual during the residual decomposition in terms of atoms. Experimental results demonstrate that the bilateral phase and the NAOMP-based learning dictionaries phase corporately denoise both virtual and real depth images effectively. Huayang Li, Dehui Kong, Shaofan Wang, and Baocai Yin Copyright © 2016 Huayang Li et al. All rights reserved. A Chaos-Based Encryption Scheme for DCT Precoded OFDM-Based Visible Light Communication Systems Wed, 17 Aug 2016 08:37:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/2326563/ This paper proposes a physical encryption scheme for discrete cosine transform (DCT) precoded OFDM-based visible light communication systems by employing chaos scrambling. In the proposed encryption scheme, the Logistic map is adopted for the chaos mapping. The chaos scrambling strategy can allocate the two scrambling sequences to the real () and imaginary () parts of OFDM frames according to the initial condition, which enhance the confidentiality of the physical layer. The simulation experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method for DCT precoded OFDM-based VLC systems. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme can protect the DCT precoded OFDM-based VLC from eavesdropper, while keeping the advantage of the DCT precoding technique, which can reduce the PAPR and improve the BER performance of OFDM-based VLC. Zhongpeng Wang and Shoufa Chen Copyright © 2016 Zhongpeng Wang and Shoufa Chen. All rights reserved.