Table of Contents
Journal of Ecosystems
Volume 2013, Article ID 463720, 11 pages
Research Article

Dinoflagellate Bloom of Karenia mikimotoi along the Southeast Arabian Sea, Bordering Western India

1Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, India
2Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 013, India
3NCAOR, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, Headland Sada, Goa 403 804, India
4Aquaculture Foundation of India, Number 4/40 Kapaleeswarar Nagar, Neelankarai, Chennai 600 115, India
5Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India
6Applied Microbiology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 014, India

Received 6 February 2013; Accepted 30 April 2013

Academic Editor: Felipe Garcia-Rodriguez

Copyright © 2013 R. S. Robin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A harmful algal bloom (HAB) occurred along the southeast Arabian Sea, bordering Western India, during September to November 2004. This bloom was unique in the region in terms of its large spatial extent, and the trend was weakened towards November. Mass mortality of fish, emanation of noxious odour, and respiratory problems among the children on the coastal stretch were noticed. The phytoplankton species Gymnodiniium, class Dinophyceae bloom accounted for 98% of the standing crop. The bloom Karenia mikimotoi showed a maximum density of  cells L−1 and  cells L−1 at nearshore and offshore, respectively. The remotely sensed chlorophyll a (Chl a) data from seaWiFS, sea surface temperature (SST) from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), rainfall from tropical rainfall measuring Mission (TRMM), and Sea winds from QuickSCAT reflected the bloom due to Karenia mikimotoi, suggesting the advection process at the coastal waters. The release of toxins specifically the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) and azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) from the bloom was assessed by chemical and mouse bioassay of the extract from mussel Perna indica, showing negative results. These indicate that asphyxiation and abnormal mucus secreted by the K. mikimotoi led to clogging of gills that accentuated the mass fish kills.