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Assessment of Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases among Semiurban Population of Kavre District, Nepal
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are posing a great threat to mankind. Timely identification, prevention, and control of common risk factors help to reduce the burden of death from NCDs. These risk factors are also closely related to lifestyle changes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors of NCDs among semiurban population of Kavre district. Community-based cross-sectional study design using the multistage sampling method was used to select 456 respondents. Data were collected using WHO’s STEPS instruments 1 and 2. Four behavioural risk factors, i.e., current tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, physical inactivity, and inadequate servings of fruits and vegetables and two metabolic risk factors, i.e., abdominal obesity and hypertension were included in the study. The study revealed that more than one-third (36.0%; 43.0–52.2%) were current tobacco users, nearly one-sixth (15.8%; 12.7–19.4%) consumed alcohol harmfully, most of all did not have adequate servings of fruits and vegetables (95.8%; 93.6–97.3%), nearly two-thirds have abdominal obesity (62.1%; 57.5–66.4%), and more than one-fifth of population had hypertension (22.1%; 18.6–26.2%). Only 1.1% respondents were free from risk factors, while 78.5%, 46.1%, 14.5%, and 1.8% had two, three, four, and five risk factors, respectively. The co-occurrence of three or more risk factors was associated with increasing age (AOR ranging 4.7–10.9), male sex (AOR = 3.9 (2.4–6.3); ), and illiterate respondents (AOR = 1.7 (1.0–2.9); ). The study concludes that almost all adults residing in semiurban areas of Kavre district have at least one or more risk factors, and nearly half of them have three or more risk factors. This suggests appropriate preventive approaches to be focused on younger age groups, male sex, and illiterate population to reduce the prevalence of NCDs in the near future.
Self-Reported Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Associated Factors among Restaurant Workers in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia, 2020
Introduction. Globally, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have resulted in occupational disability and injury. Of these, restaurant workers are among the high-risk professionals usually affected by WMSDs. In Ethiopia, evidence on the burden of musculoskeletal disorder and contributing factors among restaurant workers were very limited. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of self-reported WMSDs and contributing factors among restaurant workers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia, 2020. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2020 to March 2020 among restaurant workers in Gondar city. A two-stage sampling technique was used to choose 633 study subjects. A structured Nordic questioner was used to collect the data. Data was entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Stata version 14.0 for analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to measure the association between WMSDs and independent variables. In the multivariable analysis, a value of <0.05 was used to declare a statistically significant association. To check the goodness of fit, the Hosmer and Lemeshow test was used. Results. The prevalence of WMSDs among restaurant workers in the past 12 months was 81.5% [95% CI (78.18–84.44)]. Attending primary education [AOR: 2.14, 95% CI (1.17–3.90)], attending secondary education [AOR: 1.71 (1.02–2.86)], and job satisfaction [AOR: 1.90, 95%CI (1.13–3.19)] were significantly associated with WMSDs. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of WMSDs among restaurant workers was high. The upper back, lower back, elbow, and wrist were the most affected body parts. Age above 30 years, educational status being primary and secondary, and being dissatisfied by their job were positively associated with a high prevalence of WMSDs.
Time-Resolved Characterization of Indoor Air Quality due to Human Activity and Likely Outdoor Sources during Early Evening Secondary School Wrestling Matches
Despite positive health outcomes associated with physical activity as well as individual and team sports, poor indoor air and environmental quality can adversely affect human health, performance, and comfort. We conducted a 14-month field case study incorporating two winter sports regular seasons (12/2017–2/2019) including analyses of particulate matter (PMx) in air and in dust, carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, and relative humidity (RH%) during secondary or high school wrestling activities in southern New Jersey, USA. After planning and piloting methods during the first winter sports regular season (12/2017–2/2018), during the second winter sports regular season (1–2/2019), we conducted a purposeful simultaneous real-time sampling midgymnasium adjacent to the wrestling mats. Gymnasium occupancy ranged 100–500 people. Data collected included inhalable PM10 resuspended from floor mats, fine respirable PM2.5, and indoor CO2, temperature, and RH%. Short-term real-time elevated PM10 levels were directly compared with simultaneously documented wrestling match bouts, e.g., student-athlete takedowns and pins. PM10 and PM2.5 levels were compared with other known documented activities indoors (e.g., snack bar) and sources outdoors (e.g., adjacent parking lot and major freeway). To understand CO2, temperature, and RH% data, we characterized the HS gym mechanical ventilation system—no doors or windows outdoors—and recorded occupancy during match hours. Indoor CO2 levels ranged ∼700–1000 ppm during match #1 on 1/23/2019 but ranged from ∼900 to 1900 ppm during match #2 on 1/30/2019, with >1000 ppm for the majority of the time (and throughout the entire varsity match when occupancy was at maximum). Future research should further characterize PM10 constituents in mat dust and indoor air with larger samples of schools and matches.
Mortality and Excess Mortality: Improving FluMOMO
FluMOMO is a universal formula to forecast mortality in 27 European countries and was developed on EuroMOMO context, http://www.euromomo.eu. The model has a trigonometric baseline and considers any upwards deviation from that to come from flu or extreme temperatures. To measure it, the model considers two variables: influenza activity and extreme temperatures. With the former, the model gives the number of deaths because of flu and with the latter the number of deaths because of extreme temperatures. In this article, we show that FluMOMO lacks important variables to be an accurate measure of all-cause mortality and flu mortality. Indeed, we found, as expected, that population ageing and exposure to the risk of death cannot be excluded from the linear predictor. We model weekly deaths as an autoregressive process (lag of one together with a lead of one week). This step allowed us to avoid FluMOMO trigonometric baseline and have a fit to weekly deaths through demographic variables. Our model uses data from Portugal between 2009 and 2020, on ISO-week basis. We use negative binomial-generalized linear models to estimate the weekly number of deaths as an alternative to traditional overdispersion Poisson. As explanatory variables were found to be statistically significant, we registered the number of deaths from the previous week, the influenza activity index, the population average age, the heat waves, the flu season, the number of deaths with COVID-19, and the population exposed to the risk of dying. Considering as excess mortality the number of deaths above the best estimate of deaths from our model, we conclude that excess mortality in 2020 (net of COVID-19 deaths, heat wave of July, and ageing) is low or inexistent. The model also allows us to have the number of deaths arising from flu and we conclude that FluMOMO is overestimating deaths from flu by 78%. Averages from the probability of dying are obtained as well as the probability of dying from flu. The latter is shown to be decreasing over time, probably due to the increase of flu vaccination. Higher mortality detected with the start of COVID-19, in March-April 2020, was probably due to COVID-19 deaths not recognized as COVID-19 deaths.
Efficiency of Treatment Plant and Drinking Water Quality Assessment from Source to Household, Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia
Introduction. Access to safe drinking water is essential to health, and it is a basic human right. However, drinking water treatment plant efficiency and its water quality are not well investigated in low-income countries including Ethiopia. Methods. A laboratory-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 75 water samples. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 22 to generate descriptive statistics, and one-way ANOVA was used to test statistically significant difference. Results. Physicochemical qualities of the water samples from tap water sources were found to be pH (6.88 ± 0.05), turbidity (5.15 ± 0.006 NTU), electrical conductivity (170.6 ± 0.1 μS/cm), residual chlorine (0.19 ± 0.003 mg/L), and fluoride (1.17 ± 0.009 mg/L). The removal efficiency of turbidity, total hardness, and nitrate was found to be 94.4%, 52.3%, and 88.7%, respectively. Removal efficiency of the treatment plant for total coliforms up to 91.6% (15 ± 0.26 CFU/100 mL in tap water) and faecal coliforms up to 99% (1.51 ± 0.03 CFU/100 mL in tap water) was recorded. Parameters of pH, temperature, and faecal coliform were statistically significant different at in tap water source. The overall efficiency of the treatment plant (68.5%) and the water quality index (76) were recorded. Conclusion. Based on the results, some of the investigated parameters of water quality (turbidity, residual chlorine, total coliform, and faecal coliform) were found to be not within the permissible limits of WHO guideline values for drinking water quality. The water quality index of the water samples was categorized under good water quality. To adequately treat drinking water and improve the treatment plant, adequate preliminary treatments like screening to reduce the incoming organic loading, proper chlorination of the drinking water system, and frequent monitoring and maintenance of the treatment plant system are required.
Adsorption of Rare Earth Ce3+ and Pr3+ Ions by Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid
This study reports the use of hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL) based on D-galactose for the recovery of Ce (III) and Pr (III) ions from solutions. The equilibrium data were obtained by optimization of batch parameters, and various isotherms and kinetic models were utilised to predict the mechanistic process of sequestration of ions. The Arrhenius activation energies are found to be between 5–40 kJ, suggesting the physisorption process of ions onto IL. The present process is understood to be rapid and exothermic in nature according to thermodynamic experiments. The loading capacity was found to be 179.3 g L−1 and 141.5 g L−1, respectively, for Ce (III) and Pr (III) ions at pH 5 with a contact time of 30 min and dose being 0.1 g L−1. The higher uptake capacity is attributed to the presence of a highly electronegative fluorine atom in the IL. These results highlight the potential application of IL in the sequestration of Ce (III) and Pr (III) ions from any water sources.