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Antimicrobial Resistance among Community-Acquired Uropathogens in Mashhad, Iran
Background. Antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired uropathogens is an emerging concern over the past decades that warrants a continuing reevaluation of the appropriateness of recommended empiric antimicrobial regimens for treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Aims. To describe the microbial spectrum and resistance profile of community-acquired uropathogens and predictors of isolation of resistant strains. Methods. Between October 2017 and June 2019, individuals who visited the outpatient clinics for diagnosis of UTIs or screening of asymptomatic bacteriuria were included in the study if they were tested for urine culture in one of the three main medical diagnostic laboratories of Mashhad, Iran. The standard disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing was used, with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) threshold cutoffs for susceptibility of isolated uropathogens. Results. Three hundred thirty cases were included with a median age of 47 years. Two hundred seventy-six (83.6%) were female. The most common isolated uropathogens were Escherichia coli in 201 (60.9%) cases and Klebsiella species in 46 (13.9%) cases. E. coli isolates showed the highest rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (89.3%), cefixime (75%), and gentamicin (72.4%). Exposure to antibiotics in the past 3 months was a predictor of resistance to ciprofloxacin (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.33–6.28), and older age was a predictor of resistance to TMP-SMX (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.07–3.97) among E. coli isolates. Conclusion. E. coli and Klebsiella species accounted for about two-thirds of community-acquired uropathogens. In regard to the high susceptibility rates, nitrofurantoin was identified as the first-choice agent for empiric treatment of community-acquired cystitis, while cefixime and gentamicin might be the second-choice alternatives. Ciprofloxacin and TMP-SMX, on the other hand, cannot be considered appropriate agents for empiric therapy of community-acquired UTIs, particularly in those who had exposure to antibiotics in the past 3 months and the elderly.
Uterine Cancer Mortality in White and African American Females in Southeastern North Carolina
The residents of southeastern North Carolina (NC) are exposed to multiple socioeconomic and environmental risk factors and have higher mortality rates for a number of diseases. Uterine cancer mortality is known to vary dramatically by race, so we analyzed uterine cancer mortality in populations defined by zip codes in this area to investigate the contributions of various environmental risk factors to race-specific disease patterns. Methods. Zip code specific mortality and hospital admissions for uterine cancer from 2007 to 2013 were analyzed using the NC State Center for Health Statistics data and the Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project datafiles, respectively. Results were adjusted for age, income, education, health insurance coverage, prevalence of current smokers, and density of primary care providers. Results. Uterine cancer mortality rates were generally higher in African American (32.5/100,000, 95% CI = 18.9–46.1) compared to White (19.6/100,000, 95% CI = 12.3–26.9) females. Odds ratios (ORs) of uterine cancer death were higher in White females (OR = 2.27, ) residing within zip codes with hog concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) (hog density >215 hogs/km2) than in White females residing in non-CAFO communities. African American females living near CAFOs had less pronounced increase of uterine cancer death (OR = 1.08, ). Conclusion. White females living in adjacent to hog CAFOs areas of southeastern NC have lower rates of mortality from uterine cancer than African American females, but they have higher odds of death compared to their counterparts living in other NC areas. African American females living near CAFOs also have modest increases from their high baseline mortality. While the observed associations do not prove a causation, improving access to screening and medical care is important to mitigate this health issues in southeastern NC.
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in respect of Medical Waste Management among Healthcare Workers in Clinics
Medical waste represents a significant health risk and an environmental pollution concern due to its hazardous characteristics. The knowledge and practice of healthcare personnel in respect of the disposal of medical waste is essential to perform effective medical waste management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to medical waste management among healthcare workers in clinics (medical and dental clinics, specialized medical, laboratory clinics, polyclinics, and midwifery clinics) in Phuket, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was designed with stratified-random sampling used to select the sample of 344 respondents from 172 clinics of which data were collected using face-to-face interviews. The results showed that the majority of respondents (87.2%) were female of whom 36.9% were aged (20–29), 52.0% had more than 5 years working experience, and 51.2% had participated in at least one training course regarding medical waste management. The overall scores for knowledge, attitude, and practice were at a high level (89.5%, 91.9%, and 92.2%, respectively). Significant and positive correlations were found between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.464), knowledge and practice (r = 0.396), and practice and attitude (r = 0.519). Statistical analysis using t tests and one-way analysis of variance showed that working experience and its duration were significant factors influencing good medical waste management practice. However, local authorities should implement a well-planned collection and transfer process for medical waste in order to reduce the risk of environmental pollution and the risk of infection or injury to healthcare workers and the general public.
Birzeit University Students’ Perception of Bottled Water Available in the West Bank Market
Water bottling industry has negative environmental impacts due to exploitation and possible pollution of water resources and due to solid waste problems related to the use of plastic bottles. To mitigate these impacts, it is important to study the link between consuming bottled drinking water and the perception of its quality. The objective of the study is to assess the perception of Birzeit University students’ of the bottled water marketed in the West Bank and its impact on the humans and the environment. Universities play an important role in providing awareness about environmental issues and sustainability, and university students are thought to be more environmentally conscious about these issues. A quantitative survey was used to analyze the behaviors and perceptions of Birzeit University students. The sample size was 375 students, distributed according to the college, gender, and the academic year at the university. The results show that the factors that affect the perception of the students are mainly the educational year at the university, the income, the family size, and the community type.
Individual and Community Factors Associated with Household Insecticide-Treated Bednet Usage in the Sunyani West District of Ghana Two Years after Mass Distribution
Purpose. In the year 2015, the Ghana Health Service launched a free mass insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution campaign in the Sunyani West district of Ghana with the aim of improving household ownership to increase usage. This study determined the level of ownership and usage of ITNs and associated factors among households in the Sunyani West district two years after the mass distribution campaign. Methods. Study participants were identified using the systematic approach in all five subdistricts of the Sunyani West district and interviewed, and data were collected on household ITN ownership. Data were also collected on the source of the ITN and whether the respondent slept under an ITN the previous night. Data on individual and community factors associated with ITN ownership and usage were also collected. Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to determine factors significantly associated with ITN ownership and usage. Results. The level of ITN ownership was 78.93% and usage was 55.93%. Most of the participants (73.62%) received their nets during the 2015 mass distribution campaign, 39 (11.96%) received their ITNs during antenatal care visits, whilst 27 (8.28%) bought the nets from the store. People who experience irritation (χ2 = 23.32; < 0.001) and respondents who did not perceive themselves as likely to be beaten by mosquitoes or get malaria (χ2 = 26.61; < 0.001) were less likely to use ITNs. Respondents who used other malaria/mosquito bite prevention methods were also less likely to use the ITNs (χ2 = 206.26; = 0.001), but individuals who received free nets were likely to use them. Conclusion. ITN ownership was high, but usage was low and far below the national target. Intense health education emphasizing the fact that everybody is susceptible to malaria may help improve usage.
The Influence of Apparent Temperature on Mortality in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance Area in the Middle Belt of Ghana: A Retrospective Time-Series Analysis
Globally, studies have shown that diurnal changes in weather conditions and extreme weather events have a profound effect on mortality. Here, we assessed the effect of apparent temperature on all-cause mortality and the modifying effect of sex on the apparent temperature-mortality relationship using mortality and weather data archived over an eleven-year period. An overdispersed Poisson regression and distributed lag nonlinear models were used for this analysis. With these models, we analysed the relative risk of mortality at different temperature values over a 10-day lag period. By and large, we observed a nonlinear association between mean daily apparent temperature and all-cause mortality. An assessment of different temperature values over a 10-day lag period showed an increased risk of death at the lowest apparent temperature (18°C) from lag 2 to 4 with the highest relative risk of mortality (RR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.15, value = 0.001) occurring three days after exposure. The relative risk of death also varied between males (RR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.94) and females (RR = 4.88, 95% CI: 1.40, 16.99) by apparent temperature and lag. On the whole, males are sensitive to both temperature extremes whilst females are more vulnerable to low temperature-related mortality. Accordingly, our findings could inform efforts at reducing temperature-related mortality in this context and other settings with similar environmental and demographic characteristics.