Prevalence of Work-Related Injury and Its Determinants among Construction Workers in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisRead the full article
Journal of Environmental and Public Health publishes research covering all population-wide health issues. The journal serves the public health community: epidemiologists, clinicians, toxicologists, governmental agencies, policy makers, and NGOs.
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Reemergence of Yellow Fever in Brazil: The Role of Distinct Landscape Fragmentation Thresholds
Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) reemergence in Brazil was followed by human suffering and the loss of biodiversity of neotropical simians on the Atlantic coast. The underlying mechanisms were investigated with special focus on distinct landscape fragmentation thresholds in the affected municipalities. An ecological study in epidemiology is employed to assess the statistical relationship between events of YFV and forest fragmentation in municipal landscapes. Negative binomial regression model showed that highly fragmented forest cover was associated with an 85% increase of events of YFV in humans and simians (RR = 1.85, CI 95% = 1.24–2.75, ) adjusted by vaccine coverage, population size, and municipality area. Intermediate levels of forest cover combined with higher levels of forest edge densities contribute to the YFV dispersion and the exponential growth of YF cases. Strategies for forest conservation are necessary for the control and prevention of YF and other zoonotic diseases that can spillover from the fragmented forest remains to populated cities of the Brazilian Atlantic coast.
Blood’s Concentration of Lead and Arsenic Associated with Anemia in Peruvian Children
This exploratory, descriptive cohort study (N = 60) determined lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) blood concentrations in Peruvian children and their association with hematological parameters of iron-deficient anemia (IDA) and anthropometric measurement. The mean age of children was 10.8 months (SD = 4.7) and ranged from 3 to 24 months old. Anemia (Hb levels below 10.5 g/dL) was found in 20% of this cohort. Additionally, microcytosis (MCV < 70 fL) was present in 54%, and hypochromia (MCH < 23 pg) in 42% of the group of children. Chi-square analysis showed that 88% of the children with anemia also had microcytosis and hypochromia (). Pb and As were detected in 100% of the infants’ blood samples, and the concentrations were significantly higher in older infants than in younger ones. Pb and As were not associated with the sex, anthropomorphic parameters, or infant hemogram changes. Infants who received iron supplementation were 87% less likely to have low Hb compared with those who did not (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.02–0.88, ). Herbal tea intake was significantly associated with microcytosis and hypochromia. Our finding uncovered that hematological parameters for anemia are modified in Peruvian children with high levels of microcytosis and hypochromia. Concentrations of Pb and As were above method detection limits in all Peruvian children, but these were not associated with IDA or anthropometric measurements. A large study, including other variables, would benefit from allowing a more complex model predicting anemia in Peruvian children.
Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Barriers to Their Consumption among University Students in Kuwait: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Data on fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption and barriers to their intake by Kuwait college students are needed for health promotional activities to curtail obesity and related comorbidities prevalent in Kuwait. This study employed a cross-sectional survey aimed at assessing the median F/V intake in a sample of Kuwait University students to determine its relationship with gender, body weight, college affiliation, and family monthly income and to explore perceived barriers to eating F/V. The median total F/V intake was 2.06, and the median intake of F/V without fries was even lower. Significant gender differences were found in intakes of fruit juice and the percentage of juice from fruit intake, with males consuming more servings per day compared to females. Male students were found to consume proportionately more fried potatoes of total vegetable intake when compared to females, whereas female students were found to consume more vegetables without fries than males. Taste, inconvenience, and lack of knowledge on F/V intake recommendations and preparation methods were among the main barriers to consuming more F/V. College students require encouragement to consume more F/V through targeted campaigns to increase awareness of recommendations, health benefits, and ways to incorporate F/V in their daily diet.
Microbiological Monitoring of the Environment Using the “Association Rules” Approach and Disinfection Procedure Evaluation in a Hospital Center in Morocco
Background. The hospital environment, especially surfaces and medical devices, is a source of contamination for patients. Objective. This study carried out, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time at Taza Hospital in Morocco aimed to assess the microbiological quality of surfaces and medical devices in surgical departments and to evaluate the disinfection procedure in time and space. Methods. Samples were taken by swabbing after cleaning the hospital surface or medical device, to isolate and identify germs which were inoculated on semiselective culture media then identified by standard biochemical and physiological tests, using the analytical profile index (API) galleries. Moreover, the association rules extraction model between sites on the one hand and germs on the other hand was used for sampling. Results. The study showed that 83% of the samples have been contaminated after biocleaning. The most contaminated services have been men’s and women’s surgeries. 62% of isolated germs have been identified as Gram-positive bacteria, 29% as Gram-negative bacteria, and 9% as fungi. Concerning the association rules extraction model, a strong association between some contaminated sites and the presence of germ has been found, such as the association between wall and nightstand and door cuff, meaning that the wall and nightstand contamination is systematically linked to that of the door cuff. The disinfection procedure efficacy evaluation has enabled suggesting renewing it each 4 h. Conclusion. Microbiological monitoring of surfaces is necessary at hospital level through the use of the association rule extraction model, which is very important to optimize the sampling, cleaning, and disinfection site scenarios of the most contaminated ones.
Assessment of the Bacterial Pollution and Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Benin: Case of the Hydrographic Channel Complex Cotonou-Nokoué Lake
The study aims to document the level of contamination of the aquatic ecosystem of the Cotonou-Lake Nokoué canal hydrographic complex by multidrug-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes. For this purpose, water samples were taken from several points of the complex and from the sediments at the depth of the lake. Samples of several species of freshly caught fish products from the lake were also collected. Bacteriological analyses were carried out according to the AFNOR standard (NF U: 47–100). The identification of the different bacterial species isolated was then carried out using the API 20E gallery and specific biochemical tests. The antibiogram of the strains was performed according to the recommendations of the EUCAST. Molecular characterization of the identified strains was carried out by searching for resistance and virulence genes. The results obtained revealed the presence of several bacterial species in water samples and in sediment and intestine samples of fishery products with a predominance of Gram-negative bacilli. The resistance profile of Gram-negative bacilli showed a total resistance to metronidazole (100%). 23% of the strains were also resistant to ciprofloxacin, 41% to amoxicillin, and 60% to aztreonam. Of the Gram-positive cocci identified, 66% was resistant to vancomycin, 7.5% to ciprofloxacin, 71% to erythromycin, and 22% to tetracycline. Regarding the genes sought, blaTEM (46%), blaSHV (24%), and blaCTX-M-15 (31%) were present in the genome of Gram-negative bacilli as resistance genes and fimH (41%) as virulence gene. As for Gram-positive cocci, the van B gene was completely absent. The van A was present at 6.25% in Staphylococcus aureus and mecA at 21.88 and 33.33%, respectively, in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci strains. The high resistance of isolated bacterial strains is a matter of concern and calls for a rational use of antibiotics in order to avoid the transmission of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans.
Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Soil for People Living and Working in a Mining Area
The present study used soils collected from a small-scale gold mine area to determine the health risks due to trace elements to the at-risk population in the study area. The work involved 74 soil samples from four sampling categories: 29 samples were from the mining pits (MD), 18 samples from the first washing area (WA), 17 samples from the second washing area (WB), and 10 samples from the control area (C). All samples were analyzed for Cr, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, and Hg using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Florescence (ED-XRF) method. Trace element levels were found to vary across the four sampling categories. The concentrations of trace elements recorded from different sampling categories varied in an increasing order of MD > WA > WB > C. Mercury was detected in the highest levels (max. 3.72 ± 0.15) at WB while it was not detected in the samples from C. Samples from MD indicated that Cu (max. 737.66 ± 1.3 mg/kg) was found in the highest levels whereas Hg (mean = 0.007 mg/kg) was the lowest. At WA, Cu (max. = 178.97 ± 2.46 mg/kg) registered the highest average concentration while Hg (mean = 0.05 mg/kg) had the lowest concentration. For WB, Cu (max. = 230.66 ± 3.99 mg/kg) was found in the highest concentration. The hazard index value for all exposure routes was found to be 1.77, making noncarcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the hazard index value was 9.11, showing a severe noncarcinogenic effect on children living in the study area. For the noncancer effects through the inhalation pathway, the risk posed by Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb was negligible for both adults and children, while Co posed the highest noncancer risk for children. Cobalt also indicated the highest noncancer risk for children through the dermal pathway, while As indicated the highest noncancer risk to children through ingestion. For the cancer risk, the adults were more at risk compared to children, except for As and Co through the dermal pathway posing the highest threat. Trace element concentrations, hazard quotient, and hazard index values indicated that the area was polluted and that noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects on residents and miners were significant. Therefore, there is a need to put in place mining regulations aimed at protecting the at-risk human population in the study area.