Nutritional Status of School Going Adolescent Girls in Awash Town, Afar Region, EthiopiaRead the full article
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Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations with Fractionation Method in Sediments and Waters of the Badovci Lake (Kosovo)
The concentrations of thirteen metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) were analyzed in waters and sediments of the Badovci Lake. The total metal concentrations in the water followed the descending order: Fe > Al > Mn > Cu > Ba > Zn > As > Ni > Pb > V > Co > Cd > Cr, and the total metal content in the sediments also followed the descending order: Fe > Al > Mn > Ni > Cr > Pb > Ba > Zn > V > Cu > As > Co > Cd. According to EC 98/83, Al, Fe, and Mn at some sampling sites exceeded safety limits for drinking water, whereas other elements were at acceptable levels. The total content of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and V in the sediments exceeded the target values of the New Dutch List. Using pollution indicators such as the contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo), most of the samples were unpolluted to moderately polluted by Cu, Cr, Pb, V, and Ni. The values of the pollution load index (PLI) were more than one (>1), indicating progressive deterioration of the sediment quality. The enrichment factor (EF) for all the studied metals suggests their enrichments in sediments of the Badovci Lake. Most of the elements were found in the residual fraction strongly bonded to the crystalline component. Pb, Mn, and Cu were bound in the organic and exchangeable components. The extent of pollution by heavy metals in sediments of the Badovci Lake implies that the environmental condition is relatively stable, and attention should be paid to metals bonded in the extractable and organic phases. It is recommended to periodically monitor water and sediment quality.
Trends and Factors Associated with Healthcare Utilization for Childhood Diarrhea and Fever in Ethiopia: Further Analysis of the Demographic and Health Surveys from 2000 to 2016
Background. Healthcare use for childhood illness reduces the risk of under-five deaths from common preventable diseases. However, rates of healthcare seeking for childhood diarrhea and fever remain low in most low- and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the trends and factors for healthcare diarrhea and fever in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2016. Methods. Analysis of healthcare use for diarrhea and fever trends was done using data from four Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics and healthcare use for diarrhea and fever trends, and chi-square tests were used to assess associations between independent variables and healthcare utilization in each survey. Binary logistic regression analysis was fitted to find the factors related to healthcare utilization for diarrhea and fever. All variables with odds ratio values <0.05 were considered as significant determinants of the outcome. Results. Healthcare seeking for diarrheal illness significantly increased from 13% (95% CI: 12.5–13.5) in 2000 to 44% (95% CI: 43.2–44.78) in 2016, while healthcare uses for fever significantly increased from 22% (95% CI: 16.7–27.3) in 2000 to 35% (95% CI: 34.3–35.7) in 2016. Factors of healthcare seeking for diarrhea in 2000–2016 were as follows: maternal age <30 years, urban residence, being a male child, nonexposure to mass media and not hearing information about oral rehydration, no desire to have more children, poor wealth index, and region. Meanwhile, factors for healthcare seeking for fever in 2000–2016 were as follows: a long distance from the nearest health facilities, first birth order, nonexposure to mass media, no desire to have more children, maternal age <30 years, urban residence, region, absence of antenatal and postnatal care utilization, poor wealth index, and being born from uneducated mothers ( values < 0.05). Conclusions. Factors associated with healthcare utilization for diarrhea and fever differed between 2000 and 2016. Though Ethiopia has achieved a significant reduction in under-five mortality, it needs to accelerate the reduction through strengthening healthcare utilization for common childhood illness to avoid deaths from preventable diseases.
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Air Pollution in Accra, Ghana: A Critical Survey
Air pollution has been a major challenge worldwide particularly in the developing world. It has dire implications for human health. Understanding the knowledge and behaviour of the populace is key to the development and implementation of necessary intervention programmes. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of air pollution in the Accra, Ghana. The study employed a cross-sectional design to obtain quantitative data form 1404 respondents, and the results were analysed with SPSS version 23. There were more (54.1%) female respondents than males (45.9%) in the study. The majority (70.5%) of the respondents were aware of the haze (air pollution) and its adverse effects on health. There was however a significant relationship between the sociodemographics and air pollution awareness (). There was also a correlation between residents’ age, educational level, length of stay, marital status, and knowledge/awareness rate of air pollution (). Although the majority of the respondents are aware of air pollution and its relationship to their health, rates of awareness were low in some demographic groups like the elderly and the less educated. Therefore, nondiscriminatory policies should be formed toward the education and guidance of people to become knowledgeable about air pollution and related health challenges. Most of the residents admitted improving air quality is the responsibility of every citizen. The government should utilize this to form collaborative measure with the citizens for a more effective control of air pollution.
Process Evaluation of Skilled Delivery Service in Hadiya Zone in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, Ethiopia
Pregnancy-related death is a cause for maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity as well as an obstacle for economic growth. Three-quarters of mothers’ lives can be saved if women have access to a skilled health worker at delivery and emergency obstetric care. This evaluation was conducted to assess skilled delivery service implementation level by using three dimensions (availability, compliance, and acceptability) and identify major contributing issues for underutilization of the service. The evaluation design is cross-sectional. The study included 846 mothers who gave birth in Hadiya zone within one year prior to study period, using one year delivery records. Epi Info 3.5.3 and SPSS version 16 were employed for data analysis. Based on selected indicators, resource availability was inadequate for health facilities, human resource medical equipment, and rooms. On the compliance dimension, skilled delivery service coverage (34.8%), active management of third stage labor (32.7%), and health information at discharge and in postnatal care (PNC) visit (7.1%) critically complied with or poorly agreed to the guidelines and targets. Regarding skilled delivery service acceptability, welcoming, privacy keeping, reassurance during labor pain, follow-up, baby care, comfortability (rooms, beds, and clothing), cost of service, and episiotomy (without local anesthesia) were not acceptable.
Nonfatal Occupational Injuries among Workers in Microscale and Small-Scale Woodworking Enterprise in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background. Microscale and small-scale industries have been widely expanded in low-income countries, including Ethiopia, as a job opportunity for young workers, which makes workers vulnerable to injury. Woodworking is one of the high-risk jobs in this sector due to the use of hazardous tools and machineries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of injury and associated contributing factors of this sector. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 634 workers selected from 194 microscale and small-scale woodworking enterprises in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a structured interview questionnaire and observation checklist from February to March 2016. Occupational injuries were documented according to the ILO operational definition. Descriptive statistics and multivariable analyses were used to characterize the data and to identify the factors associated with injury at a value <0.05, respectively. Result. A total of 625 (98.6%) workers were interviewed. The prevalence of occupational injury was 92 (14.7%) in the past 12 months. Workers with khat chewing behavior (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI (1.04, 4.85)), job dissatisfaction (AOR: 2.89, 95% CI (1.75, 4.76)), work-related stress (AOR: 4.79, 95% CI (1.69–13.58)), job categories (AOR: 3.52, 95% CI (1.08, 11.41)) and workplace characteristics such as unguarded machines (AOR: 3.32 (1.21, 9.11)), and inadequate work space (AOR: 3.85 (1.14, 13.04)) were significantly associated with occupational injury. Conclusion. The prevalence of nonfatal occupational injuries among workers in this study was substantially high. Workers’ behavior, psychosocial issues, and work-related characteristics played a causal role in the occurrence of occupational injury. Therefore, workers' safety protection and behavioral intervention should be initiated.
The Role of Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Preventive Medicine: A Perspective from Portugal Primary Health-Care Cardiovascular Risk Assessment
The cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world, especially because of myocardial infarction and stroke. Their beginning, however, starts many years earlier with the atherosclerotic process due to the cardiovascular risk factors, with different weights in the global risk. Our aim is to review the utilization of risk estimators in primary health care, through a comprehensive review of the literature and official national and international health data (OECD and WHO). The risk estimators aim to integrate the partial information of each factor in a global calculation able to help towards a better clinical reasoning in primary prevention. Besides the variables in the mathematical algorithm, estimators must consider also the factors not in the equation, but significant for decision making. Risk estimators are crucial in prevention, allowing to classify the risk in practical categories easy to use and to benefit the decision-making, more than trying to guess what will happen to the patient.