Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 165013, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/165013
Research Article

Experienced Poor Lighting Contributes to the Seasonal Fluctuations in Weight and Appetite That Relate to the Metabolic Syndrome

National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, 00271 Helsinki, Finland

Received 6 March 2009; Accepted 6 May 2009

Academic Editor: Ulrich Laaser

Copyright © 2009 Sharon Grimaldi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. D. Healy, “Excess winter mortality in Europe: a cross country analysis identifying key risk factors,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 784–789, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. P. R. Woodhouse, K. T. Khaw, M. Plummer, A. Foley, and T. W. Meade, “Seasonal variations of plasma fibrinogen and factor VII activity in the elderly: winter infections and death from cardiovascular disease,” The Lancet, vol. 343, no. 8895, pp. 435–439, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. J. M. Eagles, I. H. McLeod, and A. S. Douglas, “Seasonal changes in psychological well-being in an elderly population,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 171, pp. 53–55, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. P. P. A. Mersch, H. M. Middendorp, A. L. Bouhuys, D. G. M. Beersma, and R. H. van den Hoofdakker, “Seasonal affective disorder and latitude: a review of the literature,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 35–48, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. C. Espiritu, D. F. Kripke, S. Ancoli-Israel et al., “Low illumination experienced by San Diego adults: association with atypical depressive symptoms,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 403–407, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. V. Hansen, E. Lund, and T. Smith-Sivertsen, “Self-reported mental distress under the shifting daylight in the high north,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 447–452, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. C. Thompson, D. Stinson, and A. Smith, “Seasonal affective disorder and season-dependent abnormalities of melatonin suppression by light,” The Lancet, vol. 336, no. 8717, pp. 703–706, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. T. A. Wehr, W. C. Duncan Jr., L. Sher et al., “A circadian signal of change of season in patients with seasonal affective disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 1108–1114, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. G. W. Lambert, C. Reid, D. M. Kaye, G. L. Jennings, and M. D. Esler, “Effect of sunlight and season on serotonin turnover in the brain,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9348, pp. 1840–1842, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. C. Johansson, M. Willeit, C. Smedh et al., “Circadian clock-related polymorphisms in seasonal affective disorder and their relevance to diurnal preference,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 734–739, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  11. T. Partonen, J. Treutlein, A. Alpman et al., “Three circadian clock genes Per2, Arntl, and Npas2 contribute to winter depression,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 229–238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. E. McCarthy, N. Tarrier, and L. Gregg, “The nature and timing of seasonal affective symptoms and the influence of self-esteem and social support: a longitudinal prospective study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1425–1434, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. E. E. Michalak, C. Wilkinson, K. Hood, C. Dowrick, and G. Wilkinson, “Seasonality, negative life events and social support in a community sample,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 182, pp. 434–438, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. D. G. Blazer, R. C. Kessler, and M. S. Swartz, “Epidemiology of recurrent major and minor depression with a seasonal pattern. The National Comorbidity Survey,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 172, pp. 164–167, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. T. Partonen and J. Lönnqvist, “Seasonal affective disorder,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9137, pp. 1369–1374, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. T. H. Heiskanen, L. K. Niskanen, J. J. Hintikka et al., “Metabolic syndrome and depression: a cross-sectional analysis,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 1422–1427, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. S. McIntyre, J. K. Soczynska, J. Z. Konarski et al., “Should depressive syndromes be reclassified as “metabolic syndrome type II”?” Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 257–264, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. R. Rintamäki, S. Grimaldi, A. Englund et al., “Seasonal changes in mood and behavior are linked to metabolic syndrome,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 1, article e1482, pp. 1–8, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. C. A. McClung, “Circadian genes, rhythms and the biology of mood disorders,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 222–232, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. H.-U. Wittchen, G. Lachner, U. Wunderlich, and H. Pfister, “Test-retest reliability of the computerized DSM-IV version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI),” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 568–578, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. P. Pirkola, E. Isometsä, J. Suvisaari et al., “DSM-IV mood-, anxiety- and alcohol use disorders and their comorbidity in the Finnish general population. Results from the Health 2000 Study,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), “Third report of the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 25, pp. 3143–3421, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  23. D. P. Goldberg and V. F. Hillier, “A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 139–145, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  24. D. J. Pevalin, “Multiple applications of the GHQ-12 in a general population sample: an investigation of long-term retest effects,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 508–512, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. A. T. Beck, C. H. Ward, M. Mendelson, J. Mock, and J. Erbaugh, “An inventory for measuring depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 561–571, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  26. N. E. Rosenthal, G. H. Bradt, and T. A. Wehr, Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Md, USA, 1984.
  27. H. T. VanderLeest, T. Houben, S. Michel et al., “Seasonal encoding by the circadian pacemaker of the SCN,” Current Biology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 468–473, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. O. M. Buxton, C. W. Lee, M. L'Hermite-Balériaux, F. W. Turek, and E. Van Cauter, “Exercise elicits phase shifts and acute alterations of melatonin that vary with circadian phase,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 284, no. 3, pp. R714–R724, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  29. T. Deboer, M. J. Vansteensel, L. Détári, and J. H. Meijer, “Sleep states alter activity of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1086–1090, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. F. A. J. L. Scheer, K. P. Wright Jr., R. E. Kronauer, and C. A. Czeisler, “Plasticity of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system,” PLoS ONE, vol. 2, no. 8, article e721, pp. 1–7, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. T. Sakurai, “The neural circuit of orexin (hypocretin): maintaining sleep and wakefulness,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–181, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. E. E. Abrahamson and R. Y. Moore, “Lesions of suprachiasmatic nucleus efferents selectively affect rest-activity rhythm,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 252, no. 1-2, pp. 46–56, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. M. H. Teicher, C. A. Glod, E. Magnus et al., “Circadian rest-activity disturbances in seasonal affective disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 124–130, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  34. B. E. H. van Oort, N. J. C. Tyler, M. P. Gerkema, L. Folkow, and K.-A. Stokkan, “Where clocks are redundant: weak circadian mechanisms in reindeer living under polar photic conditions,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 183–194, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. D. Stoleru, P. Nawathean, M. P. Fernández, J. S. Menet, M. F. Ceriani, and M. Rosbash, “The Drosophila circadian network is a seasonal timer,” Cell, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 207–219, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. G. A. Lincoln, I. J. Clarke, R. A. Hut, and D. G. Hazlerigg, “Characterizing a mammalian circannual pacemaker,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5807, pp. 1941–1944, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. A. C. Zambon, E. L. McDearmon, N. Salomonis et al., “Time- and exercise-dependent gene regulation in human skeletal muscle,” Genome Biology, vol. 4, no. 10, article R61, pp. 1–12, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. N. E. Rosenthal, M. J. Genhart, B. Caballero et al., “Psychobiological effects of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals in patients with seasonal affective disorder and normal controls,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1029–1040, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. K. Kräuchi, C. Cajochen, E. Werth, and A. Wirz-Justice, “Alteration of internal circadian phase relationships after morning versus evening carbohydrate-rich meals in humans,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 364–376, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. P. A. Gaist, E. Obarzanek, R. G. Skwerer, C. C. Duncan, P. M. Shultz, and N. E. Rosenthal, “Effects of bright light on resting metabolic rate in patients with seasonal affective disorder and control subjects,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 989–996, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. L. N. Rosen, S. D. Targum, M. Terman et al., “Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 131–144, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. F. P. M. Kruijver and D. F. Swaab, “Sex hormone receptors are present in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus,” Neuroendocrinology, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 296–305, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. S. Gery, R. K. Virk, K. Chumakov, A. Yu, and H. P. Koeffler, “The clock gene Per2 links the circadian system to the estrogen receptor,” Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 57, pp. 7916–7920, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. W. Cai, J. Rambaud, M. Teboul et al., “Expression levels of estrogen receptor ß are modulated by components of the molecular clock,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 784–793, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. E. Kronholm, T. Partonen, T. Laatikainen et al., “Trends in self-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finland from 1972 to 2005: a comparative review and re-analysis of Finnish population samples,” Journal of Sleep Research, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 54–62, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. S. Leppämäki, J. Haukka, J. Lönnqvist, and T. Partonen, “Drop-out and mood improvement: a randomised controlled trial with light exposure and physical exercise [ISRCTN36478292],” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 4, article 22, pp. 1–11, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. E. Jané-Llopis, C. Hosman, R. Jenkins, and P. Anderson, “Predictors of efficacy in depression prevention programmes: meta-analysis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 183, pp. 384–397, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. A. Magnusson, S. Friis, and S. Opjordsmoen, “Internal consistency of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ),” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 42, no. 2-3, pp. 113–116, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. M. A. Young, C. Blodgett, and A. Reardon, “Measuring seasonality: psychometric properties of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and the Inventory for Seasonal Variation,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 75–83, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. G. Murray, “The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire as a measure of mood seasonality: a prospective validation study,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. E. Lund and V. Hansen, “Responses to the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire in different seasons,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 316–318, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. S. Saarijärvi, H. Lauerma, H. Helenius, and S. Saarilehto, “Seasonal affective disorders among rural Finns and Lapps,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 95–101, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Magnusson, J. Axelsson, M. M. Karlsson, and H. Oskarsson, “Lack of seasonal mood change in the Icelandic population: results of a cross-sectional study,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 2, pp. 234–238, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. T. Partonen, J. Haukka, S. Pirkola, E. Isometsä, and J. Lönnqvist, “Time patterns and seasonal mismatch in suicide,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 110–115, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar