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Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 964617, 6 pages
Research Article

Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

1Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center,1 Medical Center Drive, P.O. Box 9190, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 11 Third Hospital Avenue #05-00, Singapore 168751
3Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
4Center for Healthy Aging Research, School of Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR 97331, USA

Received 8 June 2011; Revised 8 September 2011; Accepted 22 September 2011

Academic Editor: Ivo Iavicoli

Copyright © 2011 Charumathi Sabanayagam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged ≥55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of CVD among those with sleep duration ≤5 h was 2.89 (1.17–7.16). Similarly, the multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD was 4.45 (1.85–10.72) and 2.60 (1.25–5.42) for daytime sleepiness >2 h and difficulty falling asleep often/always. Conclusion. Symptoms of insomnia including short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep are independently associated with CVD in American Indians aged ≥55 years.