Table 4: Matched and un-matched logistic regression estimates of the association between environment risk factors and severe bicyclist injury.

Matched OR95% CIAdjustment factorsUn-matched OR95% CIAdjustment factors

Traffic volume
 Meda3.200.63, 16.25Riding fast1.220.37, 4.01Age
 Higha2.010.51, 7.94Riding fast1.530.61, 3.85Age
Avg. traffic speed (>30 km/hr)1.70, 3.91 b4.130.89, 19.11Speed and riding fast
High speed limit (>30 km/hr)1.850.46, 7.47 b1.140.41, 3.21 b

Land use
 Retail8.12*1.66, 39.7 b2.53*1.10, 5.83Age
 School0.240.03, 1.05 b0.350.04, 2.84Age and speed
 Nature0.410.14, 1.24Age1.250.60, 2.57 b

Path characteristics (side 1)
 Type of path
  Sidewalk 1Reference1Reference
  No path1.290.24, 6.81Riding fast1.100.30, 4.02 b
  Multi-use path#0.24*0.08, 0.77Riding fast1.300.59, 2.87 b
 Path location (distance from road)
  Within 1 m of road 1Reference1Reference
  Btw 1 and 3 m of road0.540.14, 2.09Age1.680.59, 4.81Speed
  >3 m from road0.480.16, 1.45Age1.420.52, 3.85Speed
 Sloped path0.420, 1.63 b1.830.71, 4.76Speed
 Path obstructions 0.360.13, 1.01Age0.810.38, 1.74 b

Path characteristics (side 2)
 Type of path
  Sidewalk 1Reference1Reference
  No path1.140.36, 3.62Age0.860.28, 2.65Age and speed
  Multi-use path#0.400.10, 1.68Age2.120.73, 6.21Age and speed
 Path location (distance from road)
  Within 1 m 1Reference1Reference
  Btw 1 and 3 m 0.110.01, 1.64Age0.960.28, 3.31Speed
  >3 m 0.360.06, 2.06Age1.950.59, 6.49Speed
 Sloped path1.110.23, 5.32 b1.930.65, 5.75 b
 Path obstructions3.320.65, 16.9 b1.100.45, 2.73 b

Roadway characteristics
 Good road condition0.25*0.07, 0.96 b0.43*0.19, 0.96 b
 >4 lanes of traffic2.590.80, 8.4 b2.310.87, 6.16Age, speed, and riding fast
  Mountable 1Reference1Reference
  Non-mountable 4.51*1.08, 18.8Sex1.620.71, 3.71 b
  No curb0.340.04, 3.17Sex0.440.05, 3.53 b
 Crossings1.10.39, 3.15 b1.850.75, 4.58Speed
 Other routes0.440.16, 1.16Riding fast0.750.34, 1.68Speed

Safety characteristics
 Street lights (side 1)1.900.70, 5.12Age0.780.34, 1.79Speed
 Street lights (side 2)0.890.29, 2.77 b0.38*0.15, 0.97Age and speed
 Lighting over path (side 1)0.360.07, 1.86 b0.430.15, 1.22Sex
 Lighting over path (side 2)0.580.16, 2.15 b0.390.15, 1.04Sex
 High surveillance0.530.17, 1.71 b0.32*0.13, 0.82Speed
Aesthetic characteristics
 >1 tree/block (side 1)2.190.41, 11.78 b2.070.57, 7.53Speed
 >1 tree/block (side 2)1.980.22, 17.88 b1.750.48, 6.42Speed
 Clean1.790.59, 5.43Age1.520.60, 3.85 b
 Attractive for bicycling0.40.13, 1.23 b0.490.18, 1.32Age and speed
 Continuity of path3.00.35, 25.96 b2.340.29, 19.04Age, speed, and riding fast

MV: motor vehicle; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval.
*Represents significance based on CI not including the null value.
aLow volume: ≤250 vehicles/hr, medium volume: 250–749 vehicles/hr, high volume: ≥750 vehicles/hr.
bIf model could not accommodate the addition of one or more covariates, the crude estimate was retained.