Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

A Synthesis of the Evidence for Managing Stress at Work: A Review of the Reviews Reporting on Anxiety, Depression, and Absenteeism

Table 1

Model for categorising stress management interventions (adapted from de Jonge and Dollard) [17].

LevelPrimary preventionSecondary preventionTertiary preventionOutcome measures

OrganisationalImproving work content, fitness programmes, and career developmentImproving communication and decision making and conflict managementVocational Rehabilitation and outplacementProductivity, turn-over, absenteeism, and financial claims

Individual and Organizational interfaceTime management, improving interpersonal skills, and Work/home BalancePeer support groups, coaching, and career planningPosttraumatic stress assistance programmes and group psychotherapyJob stressors such as demands, control, support, role ambiguity, relationships, change, with burnout

IndividualPre-employment medical examination and didactic stress managementCognitive behavioural techniques and relaxationRehabilitation after sick leave, disability management, case management, and individual psychotherapyMood states, psychosomatic complaints, subjective experienced stress, physiological parameters, sleep disturbances, and health behaviours

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