Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 589409, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/589409
Research Article

Associations between Resident Perceptions of the Local Residential Environment and Metabolic Syndrome

1Social Epidemiology and Evaluation Research Group, Sansom Institute for Health Research and School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
2Research Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada H4H 1R2
3Discipline of Geography, Environment and Population, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
4Population Research and Outcome Studies, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
5The Health Observatory, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5011, Australia
6Department of Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, VIC 3065, Australia

Received 30 April 2012; Accepted 14 August 2012

Academic Editor: Mahfuzar Rahman

Copyright © 2012 Katherine Baldock et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Zimmet, K. G. M. M. Alberti, and J. Shaw, “Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6865, pp. 782–787, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Nilsson and G. Berglund, “Prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: lessons from the Malmö Preventive Project,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 248, no. 6, pp. 455–462, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. D. Miller and D. W. Dunstan, “The effectiveness of physical activity interventions for the treatment of overweight and obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 7, no. 1, supplement, pp. 52–59, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Berkman and I. Kawachi, “A historical framework for social epidemiology,” in Social Epidemiology, L. Berkman and I. Kawachi, Eds., pp. 3–12, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  5. K. Sundquist, M. Malmström, and S. E. Johansson, “Neighbourhood deprivation and incidence of coronary heart disease: a multilevel study of 2.6 million women and men in Sweden,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. V. Diez Roux, S. S. Merkin, D. Arnett et al., “Neighborhood of residence and incidence of coronary heart disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Krishnan, Y. C. Cozier, L. Rosenberg, and J. R. Palmer, “Socioeconomic status and incidence of type 2 diabetes: results from the Black Women's Health Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 171, no. 5, pp. 564–570, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. Q. Gan, L. Tamburic, H. W. Davies, P. A. Demers, M. Koehoorn, and M. Brauer, “Changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of death from coronary heart disease,” Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 642–649, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. Chaix, M. Rosvall, and J. Merlo, “Assessment of the magnitude of geographical variations and socioeconomic contextual effects on ischaemic heart disease mortality: a multilevel survival analysis of a large Swedish cohort,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 349–355, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Chaix, M. Lindström, J. Merlo, and M. Rosvall, “Neighbourhood social interactions and risk of acute myocardial infarction,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 62–68, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. M. Hoehner, L. K. Brennan Ramirez, M. B. Elliott, S. L. Handy, and R. C. Brownson, “Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 105–116, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. K. Boehmer, C. M. Hoehner, A. D. Deshpande, L. K. Brennan Ramirez, and R. C. Brownson, “Perceived and observed neighborhood indicators of obesity among urban adults,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 968–977, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. H. Tilt, “Walking trips to parks: exploring demographic, environmental factors, and preferences for adults with children in the household,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 50, supplement 1, pp. S69–S73, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Inoue, N. Murase, T. Shimomitsu et al., “Association of physical activity and neighborhood environment among Japanese adults,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 321–325, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Sugiyama, E. Leslie, B. Giles-Corti, and N. Owen, “Physical activity for recreation or exercise on neighbourhood streets: associations with perceived environmental attributes,” Health and Place, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1058–1063, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Duncan and K. Mummery, “Psychosocial and environmental factors associated with physical activity among city dwellers in regional Queensland,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 363–372, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Humpel, N. Owen, D. Iverson, E. Leslie, and A. Bauman, “Perceived environment attributes, residential location, and walking for particular purposes,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 119–125, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Kondo, J. S. Lee, K. Kawakubo et al., “Association between daily physical activity and neighborhood environments,” Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 196–206, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. K. Catlin, E. J. Simoes, and R. C. Brownson, “Environmental and policy factors associated with overweight among adults in Missouri,” American Journal of Health Promotion, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 249–258, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. N. Piro, Ø. Nœss, and B. Claussen, “Physical activity among elderly people in a city population: the influence of neighbourhood level violence and self perceived safety,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 626–632, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Leslie, E. Cerin, and P. Kremer, “Perceived neighborhood environment and park use as mediators of the effect of area socio-economic status on walking behaviors,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 802–810, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. D. Tucker-Seeley, S. V. Subramanian, Y. Li, and G. Sorensen, “Neighborhood safety, socioeconomic status, and physical activity in older adults,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 207–213, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. A. Harrison, I. Gemmell, and R. F. Heller, “The population effect of crime and neighbourhood on physical activity: an analysis of 15 461 adults,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 34–39, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Christian, B. Giles-Corti, M. Knuiman, A. Timperio, and S. Foster, “The influence of the built environment, social environment and health behaviors on body mass index. Results from RESIDE,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 53, no. 1-2, pp. 57–60, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. S. Fish, S. Ettner, A. Ang, and A. F. Brown, “Association of perceived neighborhood safety on body mass index,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 2296–2303, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Gebel, A. E. Bauman, T. Sugiyama, and N. Owen, “Mismatch between perceived and objectively assessed neighborhood walkability attributes: prospective relationships with walking and weight gain,” Health and Place, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 519–524, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. Blacksher and G. S. Lovasi, “Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment,” Health and Place, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 172–179, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. A. H. Auchincloss, A. V. Diez Roux, D. G. Brown, C. A. Erdmann, and A. G. Bertoni, “Neighborhood resources for physical activity and healthy foods and their association with insulin resistance,” Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 146–157, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Boehmer, C. Hoehner, K. Wyrwich, L. Brennan Ramirez, and R. Brownson, “Correspondence between perceived and observed measures of neighborhood environmental supports for physical activity,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 3, pp. 22–36, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  30. K. Gebel, A. Bauman, and N. Owen, “Correlates of non-concordance between perceived and objective measures of walkability,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 228–238, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. M. Mark, C. Freksa, S. C. Hirtle, R. Lloyd, and B. Tversky, “Cognitive models of geographical space,” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 747–774, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. J. Gibson, “A theory of direct visual perception,” in Vision and Mind: Selected Readings in the Philosophy of Perception, A. Noe and E. Thompson, Eds., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  33. T. F. Saarinen, “Environmental perception,” in Perspectives on Environment, I. Manners and M. Mikesell, Eds., pp. 252–289, Association of American Geographers, Commission on College Geography, Washington, DC, USA, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  34. L. Z. McArthur and R. M. Baron, “Toward an ecological theory of social perception,” Psychological Review, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 215–238, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Cummins, M. Petticrew, L. Sparks, and A. Findlay, “Large scale food retail interventions and diet,” British Medical Journal, vol. 330, no. 7493, pp. 683–684, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. Chaix, “Geographic life environments and coronary heart disease: a literature review, theoretical contributions, methodological updates, and a research agenda,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 30, pp. 81–105, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Daniel, S. Moore, and Y. Kestens, “Framing the biosocial pathways underlying associations between place and cardiometabolic disease,” Health and Place, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 117–132, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Daniel, P. Lekkas, M. Cargo, I. Stankov, and A. Brown, “Environmental risk conditions and pathways to cardiometabolic diseases in indigenous populations,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 32, pp. 327–347, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. S. McEwen, “Allostasis and allostatic load: implications for neuropsychopharmacology,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 108–124, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. E. Ross and J. Mirowsky, “Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder, and health,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 258–276, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. M. Burdette and T. D. Hill, “An examination of processes linking perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 38–46, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Sundström, U. Risérus, L. Byberg, B. Zethelius, H. Lithell, and L. Lind, “Clinical value of the metabolic syndrome for long term prediction of total and cardiovascular mortality: prospective, population based cohort study,” BMJ, vol. 332, no. 7546, pp. 878–881, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy, and P. Z. Zimmet, “The metabolic syndrome,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9468, pp. 1415–1428, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. M. Grundy, B. Hansen, S. C. Smith, J. I. Cleeman, and R. A. Kahn, “Clinical Management of Metabolic Syndrome: report of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Diabetes Association Conference on Scientific Issues Related to Management,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 551–556, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. J. Cameron, P. Z. Zimmet, J. E. Shaw, and K. G. M. M. Alberti, “The metabolic syndrome: in need of a global mission statement,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 306–309, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. F. Grant, C. R. Chittleborough, A. W. Taylor et al., “The North West Adelaide Health Study: detailed methods and baseline segmentation of a cohort for selected chronic diseases,” Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations, vol. 3, article 4, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. F. Grant, A. W. Taylor, R. E. Ruffin et al., “Cohort profile: the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS),” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1479–1486, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Australian Bureau of Statistics, South Australia (SSC), Usual Resident Profile: Table U01 Usual Resident Characteristics, retrieved from CDATA 2011, Cat. no. 2004.0, ABS, Canberra, Australia, 2011.
  49. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Geography: Volume 2—Census Geographic Areas, Australia 2006, Cat. no. 2905.0, ABS, Canberra, Australia, 2007.
  50. International Diabetes Federation, The IDF Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium, 2006.
  51. E. Leslie, B. Saelens, L. Frank et al., “Residents' perceptions of walkability attributes in objectively different neighbourhoods: a pilot study,” Health and Place, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 227–236, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. E. Saelens, J. F. Sallis, J. B. Black, and D. Chen, “Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: an environment scale evaluation,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1552–1558, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. P. McGinn, K. R. Evenson, A. H. Herring, S. L. Huston, and D. A. Rodriguez, “Exploring associations between physical activity and perceived and objective measures of the built environment,” Journal of Urban Health, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 162–184, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. A. Adams, S. Ryan, J. Kerr et al., “Validation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) items using geographic information systems,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 6, supplement 1, pp. S113–S123, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. Cerin, E. Leslie, N. Owen, and A. Bauman, “An Australian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale: validity evidence,” Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 31–51, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. Cerin, B. E. Saelens, J. F. Sallis, and L. D. Frank, “Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale: validity and development of a short form,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1682–1691, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Australian Bureau of Statistics, National Health Survey: Users Guide, 2001, Cat. no. 4363.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra, Australia, 2003.
  58. W. J. Brown, S. G. Trost, A. Bauman, K. Mummery, and N. Owen, “Test-retest reliability of four physical activity measures used in population surveys,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 205–215, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Basic Community Profile (BCP) DataPack (First/Second Release), Australia 2006, Cat. no. 2069.0.30.001, ABS, Canberra, Australia, 2007.
  60. R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny, “The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1173–1182, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. P. Selig and K. J. Preacher, “Monte Carlo method for assessing mediation: an interactive tool for creating confidence intervals for indirect effects,” 2008, http://quantpsy.org/.
  62. A. F. Hayes, “Beyond Baron and Kenny: statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium,” Communication Monographs, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 408–420, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. Chaix, M. Rosvall, and J. Merlo, “Recent increase of neighborhood socioeconomic effects on ischemic heart disease mortality: a multilevel survival analysis of two large Swedish cohorts,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. E. Foraker, K. M. Rose, A. M. Kucharska-Newton, H. Ni, C. M. Suchindran, and E. A. Whitsel, “Variation in rates of fatal coronary heart disease by neighborhood socioeconomic status: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities surveillance (1992–2002),” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 580–588, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Janghorbani, R. B. Jones, and R. Nelder, “Neighbourhood deprivation and excess coronary heart disease mortality and hospital admissions in Plymouth, UK: an ecological study,” Acta Cardiologica, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 313–320, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K. Sundquist, M. Winkleby, H. Ahlén, and S. E. Johansson, “Neighborhood socioeconomic environment and incidence of coronary heart disease: a follow-up study of 25,319 women and men in Sweden,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 159, no. 7, pp. 655–662, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. F. Tabassum, E. Breeze, and M. Kumari, “Coronary heart disease risk factors and regional deprivation in England: does age matter?” Age and Ageing, vol. 39, no. 2, Article ID afp205, pp. 253–256, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. V. Diez Roux, D. R. Jacobs, and C. I. Kiefe, “Neighborhood characteristics and components of the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1976–1982, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. W. Morris, G. Wannamethee, L. T. Lennon, M. C. Thomas, and P. H. Whincup, “Do socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhood of residence independently influence incidence of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in older British men?” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. Cubbin and M. A. Winkleby, “Protective and harmful effects of neighborhood-level deprivation on individual-level health knowledge, behavior changes, and risk of coronary heart disease,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 162, no. 6, pp. 559–568, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. V. Diez-Roux, F. J. Nieto, C. Muntaner et al., “Neighborhood environments and coronary heart disease: a multilevel analysis,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 48–63, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Petrelli, R. Gnavi, C. Marinacci, and G. Costa, “Socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease in Italy: a multilevel population-based study,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 446–456, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. B. Chaix, M. Rosvall, and J. Merlo, “Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and residential instability: effects on incidence of ischemic heart disease and survival after myocardial infarction,” Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 104–111, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. R. Mobley, E. D. Root, E. A. Finkelstein, O. Khavjou, R. P. Farris, and J. C. Will, “Environment, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk in low-income women,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 327–332, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. Sundquist, H. Theobald, M. Yang, X. Li, S. E. Johansson, and J. Sundquist, “Neighborhood violent crime and unemployment increase the risk of coronary heart disease: a multilevel study in an urban setting,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 2061–2071, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. B. Hoffmann, S. Moebus, A. Stang et al., “Residence close to high traffic and prevalence of coronary heart disease,” European Heart Journal, vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 2696–2702, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. Sundquist, S. E. Johansson, M. Yang, and K. Sundquist, “Low linking social capital as a predictor of coronary heart disease in Sweden: a cohort study of 2.8 million people,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 954–963, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. H. Auchincloss, A. V. Diez Roux, D. G. Brown, E. S. O'Meara, and T. E. Raghunathan, “Association of insulin resistance with distance to wealthy areas: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 389–397, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. S. Cummins, M. Petticrew, C. Higgins, A. Findlay, and L. Sparks, “Large scale food retailing as an intervention for diet and health: quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1035–1040, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Boone-Heinonen, P. Gordon-Larsen, C. I. Kiefe, J. M. Shikany, C. E. Lewis, and B. M. Popkin, “Fast food restaurants and food stores—longitudinal associations with diet in young to middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 171, no. 13, pp. 1162–1170, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. P. Skrabanek, “The emptiness of the black box,” Epidemiology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 553–555, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. T. A. Glass, M. D. Rasmussen, and B. S. Schwartz, “Neighborhoods and obesity in older adults. The Baltimore Memory Study,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 455–463, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. S. Mujahid, A. V. D. Roux, M. Shen et al., “Relation between neighborhood environments and obesity in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 167, no. 11, pp. 1349–1357, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. W. Poortinga, “Perceptions of the environment, physical activity, and obesity,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 2835–2846, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. D. Kim, A. V. Diez Roux, C. I. Kiefe, I. Kawachi, and K. Liu, “Do neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and low social cohesion predict coronary calcification?” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 288–298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. K. Steenland, J. Henley, E. Calle, and M. Thun, “Individual- and area-level socioeconomic status variables as predictors of mortality in a cohort of 179,383 persons,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 159, no. 11, pp. 1047–1056, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus