Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 951426, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/951426
Research Article

Pilot Study Results from a Brief Intervention to Create Smoke-Free Homes

1Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Emory Prevention Research Center, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
2Emory Prevention Research Center, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

Received 2 December 2011; Revised 10 February 2012; Accepted 28 February 2012

Academic Editor: Joanna Cohen

Copyright © 2012 Michelle C. Kegler et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. K. Hackshaw, M. R. Law, and N. J. Wald, “The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke,” British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7114, pp. 980–988, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. United States Department of Health and Human Services, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinated Center for Health Promotion, Offfice on Smoking and Health, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2006.
  3. R. Taylor, F. Najafi, and A. Dobson, “Meta-analysis of studies of passive smoking and lung cancer: effects of study type and continent,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1048–1059, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. X. Zhang, O. S. Xiao, G. Yang et al., “Association of passive smoking by husbands with prevalence of stroke among Chinese women nonsmokers,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 161, no. 3, pp. 213–218, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smoke-Free Policies, in Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Tobacco Control, World Health Organization, Lyon, France, 2009.
  6. M. R. Law, J. K. Morris, and N. J. Wald, “Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischaemic heart disease: an evaluation of the evidence,” British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7114, pp. 973–980, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. D. Eisner, E. H. Yelin, J. Henke, S. C. Shiboski, and P. D. Blanc, “Environmental tobacco smoke and adult asthma the impact of changing exposure status on health outcomes,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 170–175, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health Environmental Assessment, and Office of Research and Development, Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders, 1992.
  9. J. R. DiFranza and R. A. Lew, “Morbidity and mortality in children associated with the use of tobacco products by other people,” Pediatrics, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 560–568, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. R. Anderson and D. G. Cook, “Passive smoking and sudden infant death syndrome: review of the epidemiological evidence,” Thorax, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1003–1009, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. I. McMartin, M. S. Platt, R. Hackman et al., “Lung tissue concentrations of nicotine in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS),” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 205–209, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. A. Gehrman and M. F. Hovell, “Protecting children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure: a critical review,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 289–301, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board. Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant, 2005, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8hk6960q.
  14. X. Zhang, A. P. Martinez-Donate, D. Kuo, N. R. Jones, and K. A. Palmersheim, “Trends in home smoking bans in the USA, 1995–2007: prevalence, discrepancies and disparities,” Tobacco Control, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 330–336, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K.W. Cheng, S. Glantz, and J. M. Lightwood, “Association between smokefree laws and voluntary smokefree-home rules,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 566–572, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. F. Hovell, C. Lessov-Schlaggar, and D. Ding, “Smokefree community policies promote home smoking bans unknown mechanisms and opportunities for preventive medicine,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 650–652, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “State-specific secondhand smoke exposure and current cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 58, no. 44, pp. 1232–1235, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  18. D. Koepke, B. Flay, and C. Johnson, “Health behaviors in minority families: the case of cigarette smoking,” Family and Community Health, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  19. E. A. Gilpin, M. M. White, A. J. Farkas, and J. P. Pierce, “Home smoking restrictions: which smokers have them and how they are associated with smoking behavior,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 153–162, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. J. Norman, K. M. Ribisl, B. Howard-Pitney, and K. A. Howard, “Smoking bans in the home and car: do those who really need them have them?” Preventive Medicine, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 582–589, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Biener, D. Cullen, Z. X. Di, and S. K. Hammond, “Household smoking restrictions and adolescents' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 358–363, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Wakefield, D. Banham, J. Martin, R. Ruffin, K. McCaul, and N. Badcock, “Restrictions on smoking at home and urinary cotinine levels among children with asthma,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 188–192, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. A. Pizacani, D. P. Martin, M. J. Stark, T. D. Koepsell, B. Thompson, and P. Diehr, “Household smoking bans: which households have them and do they work?” Preventive Medicine, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 99–107, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Brenner and A. Mielck, “Smoking prohibition in the workplace and smoking cessation in the Federal Republic of Germany,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 252–261, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. W. Jeffery, S. H. Kelder, J. L. Forster, S. A. French, H. A. Lando, and J. E. Baxter, “Restrictive smoking policies in the workplace: effects on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 78–82, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. I. Mills, K. Messer, E. A. Gilpin, and J. P. Pierce, “The effect of smoke-free homes on adult smoking behavior: a review,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1131–1141, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. J. Farkas, E. A. Gilpin, J. M. Distefan, and J. P. Pierce, “The effects of household and workplace smoking restrictions on quitting behaviours,” Tobacco Control, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 261–265, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. C. Kegler and L. H. Malcoe, “Smoking restrictions in the home and car among rural Native American and White families with young children,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 334–342, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. A. Okah, W. S. Choi, K. S. Okuyemi, and J. S. Ahluwalia, “Effect of children on home smoking restriction by inner-city smokers,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 244–249, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. A. Pizacani, D. P. Martin, M. J. Stark, T. D. Koepsell, B. Thompson, and P. Diehr, “A prospective study of household smoking bans and subsequent cessation related behaviour: the role of stage of change,” Tobacco Control, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Messer, A. L. Mills, M. M. White, and J. P. Pierce, “The Effect of Smoke-Free Homes on Smoking Behavior in the U.S.,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 210–216, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. I. Clark, M. W. Schooley, B. Pierce, J. Schulman, A. M. Hartman, and C. L. Schmitt, “Impact of home smoking rules on smoking patterns among adolescents and young adults,” Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 3, no. 2, p. A41, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. A. Wakefield, F. J. Chaloupka, N. J. Kaufman, C. T. Orleans, D. C. Barker, and E. E. Ruel, “Effect of restrictions on smoking at home, at school, and in public places on teenage smoking: cross sectional study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7257, pp. 333–337, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. F. Hovell and S. C. Hughes, “The behavioral ecology of secondhand smoke exposure: a pathway to complete tobacco control,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1254–1264, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Prentice-Hall, New York, NY, USA, 1986.
  36. A. Bandura, Social Learning Theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1977.
  37. A. McAlister, C. Perry, and G. Parcel, “How individuals, environments and health behaviors interact,” in Health Behavior and Health Education, K. Glanz, B. Rimer, and K. Viswinath, Eds., Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 4th edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. Prochaska, C. Redding, and K. Evers, “The transtheoretical model and stages of change,” in Health Behavior and Health Education, K. Glanz, B. Rimer, and K. Viswinath, Eds., Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 4th edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. O. Prochaska, C. C. DiClemente, and J. C. Norcross, “In search of how people change: applications to addictive behaviors,” American Psychologist, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1102–1114, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. O. Prochaska, W. F. Velicer, C. C. DiClemente, and J. Fava, “Measuring processes of change: applications to the cessation of smoking,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 520–528, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Smoke-Free Homes,” http://www.epa.gov/smokefree/index.html.
  42. Health Canada, Make Your Home and Car Smoke-Free: A Guide to Protecting your Family from Second-Hand Smoke, 2006, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/pubs/tobac-tabac/second-guide/index-eng.php.
  43. M. C. Kegler, C. Escoffery, A. Groff, S. Butler, and A. Foreman, “A qualitative study of how families decide to adopt household smoking restrictions,” Family and Community Health, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 328–341, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Escoffery, M. C. Kegler, and S. Butler, “Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities,” Health Education Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 76–86, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2008.
  46. A. P. Martínez-Donate, M. F. Hovell, C. R. Hofstetter et al., “Smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in Tijuana, Mexico,” Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 412–417, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. World Health Organization, Tobacco Free Initiative: Surveillance and Monitoring, http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/en/index.html.
  48. W. F. Velicer, S. L. Hughes, J. L. Fava, J. O. Prochaska, and C. C. DiClemente, “An empirical typology of subjects within stage of change,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 299–320, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2005, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/technical_infodata/surveydata/2005.htm.
  50. S. Baxter, L. Blank, E. S. Everson-Hock et al., “The effectiveness of interventions to establish smoke-free homes in pregnancy and in the neonatal period: a systematic review,” Health Education Research, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 265–282, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Allmark et al., “Evaluation of the impact of a smoke-free home initiative in Rotherham, a deprived district in Northern England,” European Journal of Public Health, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 248–251, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  52. M. F. Hovell, D. R. Wahlgren, S. Lile et al., “Providing coaching and cotinine results to preteens to reduce their secondhand smoke exposure: a randomized trial,” Chest, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 681–689, 2011. View at Google Scholar