Table 1: ICD-10 codes for disease groups, lead and lag times, and relative risks for association between air pollution and incidence and mortality. All relative risks are per μg/m3 increase in yearly average ambient species concentration.

Chemical species disease ICD-10 codes Lead time Lag time Relative risk
Male Female

PM2.5, NO3, SO4
 Coronary heart disease I20–25 1 5 1.0105 1.021
 Stroke and cerebrovascular disease mortality I60–69 1 5 1.0175 1.035
 Lung cancer C33-34 10 15 1.014 1.014
 COPD J41–44 10 15 1.014 1.014
 Other cause mortality 0 0 1.003 1.003
NO2
 Coronary heart disease I20–25 1 5 1.01.0
 Stroke and cerebrovascular disease mortality I60–69 1 5 1.01.0
 Lung cancer C33-34 10 15 1.008 1.008
 COPD J41–44 10 15 1.005 1.005
 Other causes of mortality 0 0 1.01.0

Sources: lead and lag times: Baan et al. [26]. Relative risks: Abbey et al. [16], Pope et al. [15], Chen et al. [25], Miller et al. [17], and Bønløkke [2].
*: no effect included in the model.