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Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2015, Article ID 810846, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/810846
Research Article

Outdoor Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases in Lebanon: A Case-Control Study

1Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory (LCER), Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573-14, Lebanon
2School of Public Health, Free University of Brussels, Route de Lennik 808, CP 596, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory (LCER), Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut 6573-14, Lebanon
4Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
5Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
6Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, Free University of Brussels, Route de Lennik 808, CP 596, 1070 Brussels, Belgium

Received 31 August 2014; Revised 18 October 2014; Accepted 16 November 2014

Academic Editor: Sina Dobaradaran

Copyright © 2015 Zeina Nasser et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Outdoor air pollution is increasingly considered as a serious threat for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between outdoor pollutants and cardiovascular diseases among adults in Lebanon and to examine the possible moderator effect of cigarette smoking status on this association. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between October 2011 and October 2012. Cases were hospitalized patients diagnosed with CVD by a cardiologist while the control group subjects were free of any cardiac diseases. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, self-rated global health, pollution exposure, and other risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. The results of the logistic regression revealed that living near busy highway (OR 5.04, 95% CI (4.44–12.85), ) and close to local diesel generator (OR 4.76, 95% CI (2.07–10.91), ) was significantly associated with CVD. The association between the CVD and exposure to outside pollutants differed by cigarette smoking status. A clear difference was noted between nonsmokers and current smokers OR 4.6, 95% CI (1.10–19.25) and OR 10.11, 95% CI (7.33–20.23), respectively. Forthcoming studies are needed to clarify the potential link between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon. Public health interventions must be implemented to reduce air pollution and to improve air quality.