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Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2017, Article ID 5042614, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5042614
Research Article

Interactions between Neighbourhood Urban Form and Socioeconomic Status and Their Associations with Anthropometric Measurements in Canadian Adults

1Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
2Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
3Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Cancer Control Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada
4Alberta Cancer Prevention Legacy Fund, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada
5Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to Gavin R. McCormack; ac.yraglacu@amroccmg

Received 15 March 2017; Accepted 6 August 2017; Published 5 September 2017

Academic Editor: David Strogatz

Copyright © 2017 Gavin R. McCormack et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic composition and built context are correlates of weight-related behaviours. We investigated the relations between objective measures of neighbourhood design and socioeconomic status (SES) and their interaction, in relation to self-reported waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Canadian adults ( from 12 Calgary neighbourhoods). WC and BMI were higher among residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, independent of neighbourhood design (grid, warped grid, and curvilinear street patterns) and individual-level characteristics (sex, age, education, income, dog ownership, marital status, number of dependents, motor vehicle access, smoking, sleep, mental health, physical health, and past attempts to modify bodyweight). The association between neighbourhood-level SES and WC was modified by neighbourhood design; WC was higher in disadvantaged-curvilinear neighbourhoods and lower in advantaged-grid neighbourhoods. Policies making less obesogenic neighbourhoods affordable to low socioeconomic households and that improve the supportiveness for behaviours leading to healthy weight in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods are necessary.