Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7582402, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7582402
Research Article

Examining the Relationship between Park Neighborhoods, Features, Cleanliness, and Condition with Observed Weekday Park Usage and Physical Activity: A Case Study

1School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University, 28 Division Street, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6
2Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Prevention Research Center, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 921 Assembly Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
3Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 921 Assembly Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Lucie Lévesque

Received 24 May 2017; Revised 2 October 2017; Accepted 29 October 2017; Published 26 November 2017

Academic Editor: David Strogatz

Copyright © 2017 Kerry Hamilton et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. C. Hallal, C. G. Victora, M. R. Azevedo, and J. C. K. Wells, “Adolescent physical activity and health: A systematic review,” Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1019–1030, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. I. Janssen and A. G. Leblanc, “Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 7, p. 40.
  3. D. E. Warburton, C. W. Nicoland, and S. S. Bredin, “Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 174, no. 6, pp. 801–809, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. I.-M. Lee, E. J. Shiroma, F. Lobelo et al., “Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy,” The Lancet, vol. 380, no. 9838, pp. 219–229, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. US Department of Health & Human Services, Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans [Internet]. Washington (DC): ODPHP Publication No. U0036, 2008.
  6. R. C. Colley, D. Garriguet, I. Janssen, C. L. Craig, J. Clarke, and M. S. Tremblay, “Physical activity of canadian adults: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 canadian health measures survey,” Health Reports, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. C. Colley, D. Garriguet, I. Janssen, C. L. Craig, J. Clarke, and M. S. Tremblay, “Physical activity of canadian children and youth: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 canadian health measures survey,” Health Reports, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. E. Gray, J. D. Barnes, J. C. Bonne et al., “Results from Canada’s 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth,” Journal of Physical Activity & Health, vol. 11, no. s1, pp. S26–S32, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. P. C. Hallal, L. B. Andersen, F. C. Bull et al., “Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls and prospects,” The Lancet, vol. 380, no. 9838, pp. 247–257, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. F. Sallis, R. B. Cervero, W. Ascher, K. A. Henderson, M. K. Kraft, and J. Kerr, “An ecological approach to creating active living communities,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 27, pp. 297–322, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. F. Sallis, M. F. Floyd, D. A. Rodríguez, and B. E. Saelens, “Role of built environments in physical activity, obesity, and cardiovascular disease,” Circulation, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 729–737, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. L. Bedimo-Rung, A. J. Mowen, and D. A. Cohen, “The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: a conceptual model,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 2, pp. 159–168, 28. View at Google Scholar
  13. A. T. Kaczynski and K. A. Henderson, “Environmental correlates of physical activity: A review of evidence about parks and recreation,” Leisure Sciences, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 315–354, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. A. Cohen, T. L. McKenzie, A. Sehgal, S. Williamson, D. Golinelli, and N. Lurie, “Contribution of public parks to physical activity,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 509–514, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  15. A. Mowen, A. Kaczynski, and D. Cohen, “The potential of parks and recreation in addressing physical activity and fitness,” President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. H. Babey, T. A. Hastert, H. Yu, and E. R. Brown, “Physical activity among adolescents. When do parks matter?” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 345–348, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  17. D. A. Cohen, T. Marsh, S. Williamson et al., “Parks and physical activity: Why are some parks used more than others?” Preventive Medicine, vol. 50, pp. S9–S12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Giles-Corti, M. H. Broomhall, M. Knuiman et al., “Increasing walking: how important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space?” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 169–176, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Han, D. A. Cohen, K. P. Derose, T. Marsh, S. Williamson, and L. Raaen, “How much neighborhood parks contribute to local residents' physical activity in the City of Los Angeles: A meta-analysis,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 69, pp. S106–S110, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. T. Kaczynski, M. J. Koohsari, S. A. W. Stanis, R. Bergstrom, and T. Sugiyama, “Association of street connectivity and road traffic speed with park usage and park-based physical activity,” American Journal of Health Promotion, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 197–203, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. R. McCormack, M. Rock, A. M. Toohey, and D. Hignell, “Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: A review of qualitative research,” Health & Place, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 712–726, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. T. Kaczynski, L. R. Potwarka, and B. E. Saelens P, “Association of park size, distance, and features with physical activity in neighborhood parks,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1451–1456, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. A. Cohen, J. S. Ashwood, M. M. Scott et al., “Public parks and physical activity among adolescent girls,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. e1381–e1389, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Sugiyama, J. Francis, N. J. Middleton, N. Owen, and B. Giles-CortI, “Associations between recreational walking and attractiveness, size, and proximity of neighborhood open spaces,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 1752–1757, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. M. Besenyi, A. T. Kaczynski, S. A. Wilhelm Stanis, and K. B. Vaughan, “Demographic variations in observed energy expenditure across park activity areas,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 79–81, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Floyd, J. O. Spengler, J. Maddock, P. Gobster, and L. Suau, “Environmental and social correlates of physical activity in neighborhood parks: An observational study in Tampa and Chicago,” Leisure Sciences, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 360–375, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. T. Kaczynski, G. M. Besenyi, S. W. A. Stanis et al., “Are park proximity and park features related to park use and park-based physical activity among adults? Variations by multiple socio-demographic characteristics,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 11, no. 1, article no. 146, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Schipperijn, P. Bentsen, J. Troelsen, M. Toftager, and U. K. Stigsdotter, “Associations between physical activity and characteristics of urban green space,” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 109–116, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Timperio, B. Giles-Corti, D. Crawford et al., “Features of public open spaces and physical activity among children: Findings from the CLAN study,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 514–518, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Veitch, A. Timperio, D. Crawford, G. Abbott, B. Giles-Corti, and J. Salmon, “Is the neighbourhood environment associated with sedentary behaviour outside of school hours among children?” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 333–341, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. F. Floyd, J. O. Spengler, J. E. Maddock, P. H. Gobster, and L. J. Suau, “Park-based physical activity in diverse communities of two U.S. cities. An observational study,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 299–305, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  32. H. Bai, S. A. W. Stanis, A. T. Kaczynski, and G. M. Besenyi, “Perceptions of neighborhood park quality: associations with physical activity and body mass index,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. S39–S48, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  33. N. Colabianchi, A. E. Kinsella, C. J. Coulton, and S. M. Moore, “Utilization and physical activity levels at renovated and unrenovated school playgrounds,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 140–143, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. T. Kaczynski, A. J. Johnson, and B. E. Saelens, “Neighborhood land use diversity and physical activity in adjacent parks,” Health & Place, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 413–415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Camões, A. Oliveira, and C. Lopes, “The role of park conditions and features on park visitation and physical activity,” Journal of Physical Activity & Health, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. S178–S187, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  36. K. A. Shores and S. T. West, “Rural and urban park visits and park-based physical activity,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 50, pp. S13–S17, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. “City of Kingston Planning and Development. Neighbourhood Profiles 2006,” https://www.cityofkingston.ca/city-hall/neighbourhood-profiles/profile-maps.
  38. C. M. Hoehner, L. K. Brennan Ramirez, M. B. Elliott, S. L. Handy, and R. C. Brownson, “Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 105–116, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. F. Yan, C. C. Voorhees, K. Clifton, and C. Burnier, “"Do you see what I see?" - Correlates of multidimensional measures of neighborhood types and perceived physical activity-related neighborhood barriers and facilitators for urban youth,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 50, pp. S18–S23, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. L. McKenzie, D. A. Cohen, A. Sehgal, S. Williamson, and D. Golinelli, “System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC): Reliability and Feasibility Measures,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. S1, pp. S208–S222, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  41. T. L. McKenzie and D. A. Cohen, System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities, SOPARC, Ed., 2006.
  42. D. A. Cohen, C. Setodji, K. R. Evenson et al., “How much observation is enough? Refining the administration of SOPARC,” Journal of Physical Activity & Health, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1117–1123, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. L. McKenzie, J. Sallis, and P. Nader, “System for observing fitness instruction time,” JournalofTeachinginPhysicalEducation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 195–205, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  44. P. Rowe, H. van Der Mars, J. Schuldheisz, and S. Fox, “Measuring students physical activity levels: validating SOFIT for use with high-school students,” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 235–251, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  45. P. W. Scruggs, S. K. Beveridge, P. A. Eisenman, D. L. Watson, B. B. Shultz, and L. B. Ransdell, “Quantifying physical activity via pedometry in elementary physical education,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1065–1071, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  46. N. D. Ridgers, G. Stratton, and T. L. McKenzie, “Reliability and validity of the System for Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP),” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  47. B. E. Saelens, L. D. Frank, C. Auffrey, R. C. Whitaker, H. L. Burdette, and N. Colabianchi, “Measuring physical environments of parks and playgrounds: EAPRS instrument development and inter-rater reliability,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 3, no. S1, pp. S190–S207, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  48. A. T. Kaczynski and M. E. Havitz, “Examining the relationship between proximal park features and residents physical activity in neighborhood parks,” Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 42–58, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  49. J. A. Reed, C. A. Arant, P. Wells, K. Stevens, S. Hagen, and H. Harring, “A descriptive examination of the most frequently used activity settings in 25 community parks using direct observation,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 5, no. S1, pp. S183–S195, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  50. K. A. Shores and S. T. West, “The relationship between built park environments and physical activity in four park locations,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. e9–e16, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  51. P. Tucker, J. Gilliland, and J. D. Irwin, “Splashpads, swings, and shade: Parents' preferences for neighbourhood parks,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 198–202, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. M. Blanck, D. Allen, Z. Bashir et al., “Let's go to the park today: The role of parks in obesity prevention and improving the public's health,” Childhood Obesity, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 423–428, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. T. Kaczynski, S. A. Wilhelm Stanis, T. J. Hastmann, and G. M. Besenyi, “Variations in observed park physical activity intensity level by gender, race, and age: individual and joint effects,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 8, no. S2, pp. S151–S160, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  54. J. N. Roemmich, L. H. Epstein, S. Raja, L. Yin, J. Robinson, and D. Winiewicz, “Association of access to parks and recreational facilities with the physical activity of young children,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 437–441, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. T. Kaczynski, L. R. Potwarka, B. J. A. Smale, and M. F. Havitz, “Association of Parkland proximity with neighborhood and park-based physical activity: Variations by gender and age,” Leisure Sciences, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 174–191, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Mowen, E. Orsega-Smith, L. Payne, B. Ainsworth, and G. Godbey, “The role of park proximity and social support in shaping park visitation, physical activity, and perceived health among older adults.,” Journal of Physical Activity & Health, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 167–179, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. V. Van Holle, J. Van Cauwenberg, D. Van Dyck, B. Deforche, N. Van de Weghe, and I. De Bourdeaudhuij, “Relationship between neighborhood walkability and older adults' physical activity: results from the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in Seniors (BEPAS Seniors),” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 11, article 110, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. H. Frumkin, L. Frank, and R. Jackson, Urban sprawl and public health: Designing, planning, and building for healthy communities. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004.
  59. J. H. Tilt, “Walking trips to parks: Exploring demographic, environmental factors, and preferences for adults with children in the household,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 50, pp. S69–S73, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. F. Sallis, A. C. King, J. R. Sirard, and C. L. Albright, “Perceived Environmental Predictors of Physical Activity Over 6 Months in Adults: Activity Counseling Trial,” Health Psychology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 701–709, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. C. Brownson, C. M. Hoehner, K. Day, A. Forsyth, and J. F. Sallis, “Measuring the built environment for physical activity: state of the science,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. S99–S123, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  62. K. E. Powell, “Land use, the built environment, and physical activity: a public health mixture; a public health solution,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 2, pp. 216-217, 28. View at Google Scholar
  63. K. E. Powell, “Land use, the built environment, and physical activity: A public health mixture; A public health solution,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 216-217, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. G. Trost, R. R. Pate, J. F. Sallis et al., “Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 350–355, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  65. D. Crawford, A. Timperio, B. Giles-Corti et al., “Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?” Health & Place, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 889–893, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. A. Cohen, S. Lapham, K. R. Evenson et al., “Use of neighbourhood parks: Does socio-economic status matter? A four-city study,” Public Health, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 325–332, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. B. Giles-Corti and R. J. Donovan, “Socioeconomic status differences in recreational physical activity levels and real and perceived access to a supportive physical environment,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 601–611, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. V. Moore, A. V. Diez Roux, K. R. Evenson, A. P. McGinn, and S. J. Brines, “Availability of recreational resources in minority and low socioeconomic status areas,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K. B. Vaughan, A. T. Kaczynski, S. A. W. Stanis, G. M. Besenyi, R. Bergstrom, and K. M. Heinrich, “Exploring the distribution of park availability, features, and quality across Kansas City, Missouri by income and race/ethnicity: An environmental justice investigation,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. S28–S38, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. Van Dyck, E. Cerin, T. L. Conway et al., “Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults' leisure-time physical activity: Findings from Belgium, Australia and the USA,” Health & Place, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 59–68, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. A. Reed, D. K. Wilson, B. E. Ainsworth, H. Bowles, and G. Mixon, “Perceptions of neighborhood sidewalks on walking and physical activity patterns in a southeastern community in the US,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 2, pp. 243–253, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  72. L. R. Potwarka, A. T. Kaczynski, and A. L. Flack, “Places to play: Association of park space and facilities with healthy weight status among children,” Journal of Community Health, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 344–350, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. N. Colabianchi, A. L. Maslow, and K. Swayampakala, “Features and amenities of school playgrounds: a direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 32, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  74. T. A. Farley, R. A. Meriwether, E. T. Baker, J. C. Rice, and L. S. Webber, “Where do the children play? The influence of playground equipment on physical activity of children in free play,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 2, pp. 319–331, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  75. E. Haug, T. Torsheim, J. F. Sallis, and O. Samdal, “The characteristics of the outdoor school environment associated with physical activity,” Health Education Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 248–256, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. E. Price, J. A. Reed, S. Long, A. L. Maslow, and S. P. Hooker, “The association of natural elements with physical activity intensity during trail use by older adults,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 718–723, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  77. A. T. Kaczynski, S. A. Wilhelm Stanis, and G. M. Besenyi, “Development and testing of a community stakeholder park audit tool,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 242–249, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. Fermino, R. Reis, P. C. Hallal, and A. T. Kaczynski, “Who are the users of urban parks? A study with adults from Curitiba, Brazil,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 58–67, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  79. K. R. Evenson, S. A. Jones, K. M. Holliday, D. A. Cohen, and T. L. McKenzie, “Park characteristics, use, and physical activity: A review of studies using SOPARC (System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities),” Preventive Medicine, vol. 86, pp. 153–166, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. L. Hamilton, Park usage and physical activity: an exploration of park features, neighbourhoods, and park programs [M.sc. thesis], Queens University at Kingston, Canada, 2011.