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Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume 2018, Article ID 1627180, 7 pages
Research Article

Food Safety Analysis of Milk and Beef in Southwestern Uganda

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala International University Western Campus, Box 71, Bushenyi, Uganda
2Department of Public Health, School of Allied Health and Medicine, Kampala International University Western Campus, Box 71, Bushenyi, Uganda
3College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
4National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2 Sen-11, Inada-cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan
5Postgraduate School and Research Directorate, Kampala International University Western Campus, Box 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

Correspondence should be addressed to Keneth Iceland Kasozi; moc.liamg@ydnalecik

Received 27 December 2017; Revised 11 May 2018; Accepted 16 July 2018; Published 13 August 2018

Academic Editor: Sina Dobaradaran

Copyright © 2018 Keneth Iceland Kasozi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Inorganic pollutants in milk and beef are of major public health concern; however, information in Africa is still limited due to low food safety monitoring practices. In this study, we established levels of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in milk and beef and obtained the estimated daily intake (EDI) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) as measures of risk to the Ugandan population. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study in which a total of 40 samples of milk and beef were collected from Bushenyi district in southwestern Uganda. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorbance spectrophotometer, and the EDI and ILCR were computed using the US EPA reference values. Results and Discussion. Heavy metal concentrations were highest in the order of Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu in milk samples, while in beef samples, concentrations were highest in the order of Zn > Pb > Fe > Cu and no Cd was detected. Furthermore, beef had significantly higher () Pb and Fe concentrations than milk. The EDI was highest in children, and this was followed by very high ILCR levels, showing that milk and beef are not safe for children in Uganda. Bearing in mind that a high HI was shown, beef and milk from these regions are not recommended for consumption especially by children although more studies remain to be conducted. Conclusion. Heavy metals in milk and beef of Uganda may predispose the indigenous community to cancer and other health-related illnesses, showing a need for improved food safety screening to promote food safety.