Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2018 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

A Perspective Analysis of Dams and Water Quality: The Bui Power Project on the Black Volta, Ghana

Table 3

Respondents’ general knowledge of water usage patterns, water related tropical diseases, and behavioural change.

Variables% total (200)% far from the dam communities (100)% near to the dam communities (100) valueOdd ratio

How often do you come into contact with water?
Daily23 (11.5)18 (18.0)5 (5.0)0.0040.24
Monthly175 (87.5)95 (95.0)80 (80.0)0.00134.8
None2 (10)0 (0)2 (2.0)0.15520.2
Do you perceive any health problem from your water?
Yes183 (91.5)97 (97.0)86 (86.0)0.09935.3
No17 (8.5)3 (3.0)14 (14.0)0.04470.28
Do you know anyone suffering from any of these diseases?
Malaria16 (8.0)12 (12.0)4 (4.0)0.043.27
Diarrhea36 (18.0)11 (11.0)25 (25.0)0.010.37
Onchocerciasis10 (5.0)8 (8.0)2 (2.0)0.054.3
Schistosomiasis25 (12.5)2 (2.0)23 (23.0)<0.00010.7
What are possible symptoms observed?
Coughing20.0 (10.0)9 (9.0)11 (11.0)0.06370.37
Diarrhea56 (28.0)19 (19.0)37 (37.0)0.00460.399
Blood in urine100 (55.0)43 (43.0)67 (67.0)0.00060.8
Impaired vision4 (2.0)1 (1.0)3 (3.0)0.3120.33
None10 (5.0)5 (5.0)5 (5.0)11
How often do you wash your hands in a day?
2 times42 (21)7 (7.0)35 (35.0)<0.00010.14
3 times158 (79)65 (65.0)93 (93.0)<0.00018.86
More than 3 times5 (2.5)0 (0)5 (5.0)0.02350.09
What do you wash your hand with
Soap and water25 (12.5)2 (2.0)23 (23.0)<0.00010.07
Only water84 (42)34 (34.0)50 (50.0)0.02190.52
When is the washing done?
After eating106 (53)33 (33.0)73 (73.0)<0.00010.182
After visiting the toilet93 (46.5)66 (66.0)27 (27.0)<0.00015.25
After daily work1 (0.5)1 (1.0)0 (0)0.31613.03
Why and how do you sometimes treat your drinking water?
When it smells bad00 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0
By filtration to make clean00 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0
By boiling to remove germs109 (54.5)21 (21.0)88 (88.0)<0.00010.03
By boiling reduce chances of disease81 (40.5)69 (69.0)12 (12.0)<0.00010.06
How do you keep left over food?
Reheat81 (40.5)69 (69.0)12 (12.0)<0.00010.06
In the room3 (1.5)0 (0)3 (3.0)0.0810.14
Covered109 (54.5)21 (21.0)88 (88.0)<0.00010.03
Where do you store the food?
Covered container160 (80)97 (97.0)63 (63.0)<0.000119
Uncovered container40 (20.0)3 (3.0)37 (37.0)<0.00010.053
None00 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0
Why should food be stored when not eaten?
Keeps flies off52 (26.0)21 (21.0)31 (31)0.1060.59
Prevent diseases16 (8.0)5 (5.0)11 (11.0)0.1180.43
Keep food clean6 (3.0)2 (2.0)4 (4.0)0.410.49
Keep warm56 (28.0)23 (23.0)33 (33.0)0.1150.6
How many time do you bath in a day?
One time20 (10)11 (11.0)9 (9.0)0.640.8
Two times170 (0.85)94 (94.0)76 (76.0)0.153.13
Never3 (1.5)3 (3.0)0 (0)0.0810.14
How do you dispose off your solid waste?
Burn102 (51)15 (15.0)87 (87.0)<0.00010.03
Community dump site6 (6.0)2 (2.0)4 (4.0)11
Left in the open30 (15.0)24 (24.0)6 (6.0)0.00044.94
How do you dispose of your liquid waste?
Lead to drain93 (46.5)27 (27.0)66 (66.0)<0.00010.3
Thrown on the ground53 (26.5)47 (47.0)6 (6.0)<0.000113.9
Thrown into the river3 (1.5)0 (0)3 (3.0)0.0810.14

OR refers to odds ratio; value refers to level of significance. The “far from the dam” communities were Agblekame North and Agblekame South while “near to the dam” communities were Gyama Nsuo-ano and Bongase nsuo-ano.

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