Journal of Environmental and Public Health / 2019 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Interventions to Increase Blood Donation among Ethnic/Racial Minorities: A Systematic Review

Table 3

Study characteristics.

AuthorsStudy typeCountryEthnic/racial groupSample sizePrevious/new donorsIntervention typeInterventionTailoringComparisonOutcomes

One-off information and education interventions
Bachegowda et al. [34]CohortUSA (New York)African Americann = 18,638PreviousMotivational (cognitions-based); reminders.Two e-mails, one culturally tailored, one not. Included web link to video.Peripheral (e-mail subject specified more African Americans need blood transfusions; video provided testimonial from African American woman with SCD); evidential (content presented the need to address the burden of sickle-cell disease (SCD))Not opening e-mailPrimary: return presentation for donation
Price et al. [35]Nonrandomised, experimental trial with historical controlUSA (Missouri, St. Louis)African AmericanN = 5,000 (mail-out), n = 176 (survey)Previous/newMotivational (cognitions-based)Mail-out to approx. 50% of households of an introductory postcard, educational video and brochures.Peripheral (use of African American recording artist on postcard and video); sociocultural (video addressed barriers to blood donation among African Americans identified in previous project)(1) 6 month interval from the previous year; (2) geographically adjoining zip codesPrimary: number of presenting donors
Robbins et al. [36]Case seriesUSA (eight states in the northeast region)Black (10.7% Hispanic/Latino)n = 150Majority (76.7%) previousMotivational (cognitions-based, altruism, modelling); measurement of cognitions; preventing vasovagal reactions.Computer-tailored intervention based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) accessed via the Internet. Intervention components included testimonials, images and graphics, behaviour change strategies, and feedback sections.Evidential (blood donation in the context of SCD); not further specifiedNonePrimary: likelihood of considering donating blood Secondary: stage of change progression, change in attitudinal “pros” and “cons.”
Sutton [37]Prospective cohortUSA (Virginia)African Americann = 155 (n = 124 in analysis)NewMotivational (cognitions-based, altruism)Educational session, including a researcher-led lecture, sickle-cell video, question and answer period, and social media.Evidential (education on importance and uses of blood donated by African Americans, video provided testimonial from African Americans); sociocultural (addressing barriers identified in the literature).African American population of the area as a wholePrimary: attempt to donate blood Secondary: attitudes
Multifaceted, community-based interventions
Charbonneau and Daigneault, [38]; Charbonneau and Tran, [39]Historical controlCanada (Quebec)Black/HaitianNot specifiedPrevious/newMotivational (cognitions-based)53 outreach activities (information booths, targeted presentations, group discussions, participation and sponsoring of community and cultural events, forums with leaders, radio interviews, targeted marketing, tours of laboratories, 27 blood drives)Peripheral (sponsoring of community event); evidential (raising awareness of SCD); constituent-involving (organised blood drives in collaboration with community associations, direct requests from individuals with SCD); not further specifiedNonePrimary: number of black community donors
Frye et al. [40]Historical controlUSA (New York)African American or black and Hispanic or LatinoNot specifiedNewMotivational (cognitions-based)Outreach coordinators: Included outreach to key leaders and companies; presentations at events; educational presentations at educational, civic, religious and community-based organisations. Tailored marketing materials in both English and Spanish. Newspaper coverage and radio commercials.Peripheral (images of racially and ethnically diverse communities); evidential (critical need for African Americans to donate blood); constituent-involving (building partnerships with communities and their leaders); sociocultural (addressing barriers identified in qualitative research)Donors recruited through a drive with the same population, before the involvement of the coordinator.Primary: units of blood in 14 months from African American and Hispanic or Latino American
Grassineau et al. [41]Case seriesFrance (Marseilles)Comorian communityNot specifiedNot specifiedMotivational (cognitions-based, altruism)Community action group for voluntary blood donors, including local media and community meetings.Evidential (specific importance for Comorian community); Linguistic (Comorian-speaking local radio); constituent-involving (community action group, involvement of religious and political leaders); sociocultural (explaining elements of Western culture to the Comorian community, addressing barriers identified through research)NonePrimary: volunteering for blood donation
Price et al. [42]Non-randomised, experimental trialUSA (Missouri, St. Louis)African AmericanReach: approx. 15,000 peopleNewMotivational (cognitions-based, altruism)34 blood drives at 13 churches, including education session at church.Constituent-involving (African American church sponsorship of blood drive, presented by community members); not further specifiedDonors in the general populationPrimary: percentage of first-time blood donors

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