Table of Contents
Journal of Food Processing
Volume 2015, Article ID 343945, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/343945
Research Article

Drying Kinetics of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) in a Fluidized Bed Dryer: Experimental Evaluation and Modelling

Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah, UAE

Received 20 August 2015; Revised 15 October 2015; Accepted 20 October 2015

Academic Editor: Raquel P. Guiné

Copyright © 2015 Mohamed A. ElKhodiry et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Ertekin and O. Yaldiz, “Drying of eggplant and selection of a suitable thin layer drying model,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 349–359, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. A. A. Akeredolu and L. O. Adebajo, “Microflora of three dehydrated vegetables,” British Microbiology Research Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 295–308, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. V. R. Sagar and P. Suresh Kumar, “Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review,” Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 15–26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L.-L. Huang and M. Zhang, “Trends in development of dried vegetable products as snacks,” Drying Technology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 448–461, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. U. S. Pal, M. K. Khan, and S. N. Mohanty, “Heat pump drying of green sweet pepper,” Drying Technology, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1584–1590, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Kaleta, K. Górnicki, R. Winiczenko, and A. Chojnacka, “Evaluation of drying models of apple (var. Ligol) dried in a fluidized bed dryer,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 67, pp. 179–185, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Velić, M. Bilić, S. Tomas, M. Planinić, A. Bucić-Kojić, and S. Jokić, “Study of the drying kinetic of ‘Granny Smith’ apple in fluid bed dryer,” Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 329–334, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Meziane, “Drying kinetics of olive pomace in a fluidized bed dryer,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1644–1649, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. R. Gazor and A. Mohsenimanesh, “Modelling the drying kinetics of canola in fluidised bed dryer,” Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 531–537, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Soponronnarit, T. Swasdisevi, S. Wetchacama, and W. Wutiwiwatchai, “Fluidised bed drying of soybeans,” Journal of Stored Products Research, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 133–151, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. J. Perea-Flores, V. Garibay-Febles, J. J. Chanona-Pérez et al., “Mathematical modelling of castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis) drying kinetics in fluidized bed at high temperatures,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 64–71, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. M. Tasirin, S. K. Kamarudin, J. A. Ghani, and K. F. Lee, “Optimization of drying parameters of bird's eye chilli in a fluidized bed dryer,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 695–700, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Vega, P. Fito, A. Andrés, and R. Lemus, “Mathematical modeling of hot-air drying kinetics of red bell pepper (var. Lamuyo),” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 1460–1466, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. S. Hatamipour and D. Mowla, “Shrinkage of carrots during drying in an inert medium fluidized bed,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 247–252, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. J. Temple and A. J. B. van Boxtel, “Modelling of fluidized-bed drying of black tea,” Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 203–212, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Bayrock and W. M. Ingledew, “Fluidized bed drying of baker's yeast: moisture levels, drying rates, and viability changes during drying,” Food Research International, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 407–415, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Niamnuy and S. Devahastin, “Drying kinetics and quality of coconut dried in a fluidized bed dryer,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 267–271, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Topuz, M. Gur, and M. Z. Gul, “An experimental and numerical study of fluidized bed drying of hazelnuts,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1535–1547, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Srinivasakannan and N. Balasubramanian, “Estimation of diffusion parameters in fluidized bed drying,” Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 390–394, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. S. Cohen and T. C. S. Yang, “Progress in food dehydration,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Nazghelichi, M. H. Kianmehr, and M. Aghbashlo, “Thermodynamic analysis of fluidized bed drying of carrot cubes,” Energy, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 4679–4684, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Z. V. P. Murthy and D. Joshi, “Fluidized bed drying of aonla (Emblica officinalis),” Drying Technology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 883–889, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. Senadeera, B. R. Bhandari, G. Young, and B. Wijesinghe, “Influence of shapes of selected vegetable materials on drying kinetics during fluidized bed drying,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 277–283, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Madhiyanon, A. Phila, and S. Soponronnarit, “Models of fluidized bed drying for thin-layer chopped coconut,” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 29, no. 14-15, pp. 2849–2854, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Lozano-Acevedo, M. Jimenez-Fernández, A. Ragazzo-Sánchez, G. R. Urrea-Garcia, and G. Luna-Solano, “Fluidized bed drying process of thinly sliced potato (Solanum tuberosum),” American Journal of Potato Research, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 360–366, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. J. Babalis and V. G. Belessiotis, “Influence of the drying conditions on the drying constants and moisture diffusivity during the thin-layer drying of figs,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 449–458, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. G. Mercer, A Basic Guide to Drying Fruits and Vegetables, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 2012.
  28. M. K. Krokida, V. T. Karathanos, Z. B. Maroulis, and D. Marinos-Kouris, “Drying kinetics of some vegetables,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 391–403, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Srinivasakannan and N. Balasubramaniam, “An experimental and modeling investigation on drying of ragi (Eleusine corocana) in fluidized bed,” Drying Technology, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1683–1689, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Mayor and A. M. Sereno, “Modelling shrinkage during convective drying of food materials: a review,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 373–386, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Aktas, S. Fujii, Y. Kawano, and S. Yamamoto, “Effects of pretreatments of sliced vegetables with trehalose on drying characteristics and quality of dried products,” Food and Bioproducts Processing, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 178–183, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. A. Adedeji, T. K. Gachovska, M. O. Ngadi, and G. S. V. Raghavan, “Effect of pretreatments on drying characteristics of okra,” Drying Technology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1251–1256, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. U. Yucel, H. Alpas, and A. Bayindirli, “Evaluation of high pressure pretreatment for enhancing the drying rates of carrot, apple, and green bean,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 266–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. P. F. Guiné and M. J. Barroca, “Effect of drying treatments on texture and color of vegetables (pumpkin and green pepper),” Food and Bioproducts Processing, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 58–63, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. O. Rovedo, C. Suarez, and P. E. Viollaz, “Drying of foods: evaluation of a drying model,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. A. El-Sebaii, S. Aboul-Enein, M. R. I. Ramadan, and H. G. El-Gohary, “Empirical correlations for drying kinetics of some fruits and vegetables,” Energy, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 845–859, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Food and Agriculture Organization, “Crops: production quantities by country,” 2015, http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E.
  38. Food and Agriculture Organization, “Crops: Trade/Crops and livestock products,” August 2015, http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/T/TP/E.
  39. J. V. Santacatalina, C. Ozuna, J. A. Carcel, J. V. Garcia-Perez, and A. Mulet, “Quality assessment of dried eggplant using different drying methods: hot air drying, vacuum freeze drying and atmospheric freeze drying,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Athens, Greece, May 2011.
  40. I. Doymaz, “Drying of eggplant slices in thin layers at different air temperatures,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 280–289, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. I. Doymaz and E. Göl, “Convective drying characteristics of eggplant slices,” Journal of Food Process Engineering, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1234–1252, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. Wu, T. Orikasa, Y. Ogawa, and A. Tagawa, “Vacuum drying characteristics of eggplants,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 422–429, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. V. García-Pérez, C. Ozuna, C. Ortuño, J. A. Cárcel, and A. Mulet, “Modeling ultrasonically assisted convective drying of eggplant,” Drying Technology, vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1499–1509, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Date & Time, “Weather in Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates,” July 2015, http://www.timeanddate.com/weather/united-arab-emirates/sharjah/historic.
  45. K. Sacilik, “Effect of drying methods on thin-layer drying characteristics of hull-less seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.),” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 23–30, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 1975. View at MathSciNet
  47. B. I. O. Ade-Omowaye, N. K. Rastogi, A. Angersbach, and D. Knorr, “Combined effects of pulsed electric field pre-treatment and partial osmotic dehydration on air drying behaviour of red bell pepper,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 89–98, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. M. Tasirin, I. Puspasari, A. W. Lun, P. V. Chai, and W. T. Lee, “Drying of kaffir lime leaves in a fluidized bed dryer with inert particles: kinetics and quality determination,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 61, pp. 193–201, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Q. Chen, J. Bi, X. Wu, J. Yi, L. Zhou, and Y. Zhou, “Drying kinetics and quality attributes of jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Miller) slices dried by hot-air and short- and medium-wave infrared radiation,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 759–766, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. P. Udomkun, D. Argyropoulos, M. Nagle, B. Mahayothee, S. Janjai, and J. Müller, “Single layer drying kinetics of papaya amidst vertical and horizontal airflow,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 67–73, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. S. N. Rahman, R. Wahid, and N. A. Rahman, “Drying Kinetics of Nephelium Lappaceum (Rambutan) in a drying oven,” Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 195, pp. 2734–2741, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. S. Taghian Dinani, N. Hamdami, M. Shahedi, and M. Havet, “Mathematical modeling of hot air/electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying kinetics of mushroom slices,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 86, pp. 70–80, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. V. T. Karathanos and V. G. Belessiotis, “Sun and artificial air drying kinetics of some agricultural products,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 35–46, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. I. T. Toğrul and D. Pehlivan, “Modelling of drying kinetics of single apricot,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. K. Goyal, A. R. P. Kingsly, M. R. Manikantan, and S. M. Ilyas, “Mathematical modelling of thin layer drying kinetics of plum in a tunnel dryer,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 176–180, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. V. Demir, T. Gunhan, and A. K. Yagcioglu, “Mathematical modelling of convection drying of green table olives,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. W. K. Lewis, “The rate of drying of solid materials,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 427–432, 1921. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. S. M. Henderson and S. Pabis, “Grain drying theory. I. Temperature effect on drying coefficient,” Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, vol. 6, pp. 169–174, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  59. A. Yagcioglu, A. Degirmencioglu, and F. Cagatay, “Drying characteristics of laurel leaves under different drying conditions,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Agricultural Mechanization and Energy, Adana, Turkey, 1999.
  60. S. M. Henderson, “Progress in developing the thin layer drying equation,” Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1167–1168, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y. I. Sharaf-Eldeen, J. L. Blaisdell, and M. Y. Hamdy, “A model for ear corn drying,” Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1261–1265, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. S. Kassem, “Comparative studies on thin layer drying models for wheat,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Agricultural Engineering, Rabat, Morocco, February 1998.
  63. G. E. Page, “Factors influencing the maximum rates of air drying shelled corn in thin layers,” July 2015, http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/dissertations/AAI1300089/.
  64. D. G. Overhults, G. M. White, H. E. Hamilton, and I. J. Ross, “Drying soybean with heated air,” Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 112–113, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. T. Ademiluyi, E. O. Oboho, and M. Owudogu, “Investigation into the thin layer drying models of Nigerian popcorn varieties,” Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, vol. 7, no. 13, pp. 47–62, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus