Journal of Food Processing The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Development of a Sauce Using Gymnema sylvestre Leaves Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Plant derived products have attracted enormous attention due to their diverse range of biological and therapeutic properties. Gymnema sylvestre is an underutilized medicinal herb that is widely distributed in different parts of the world. It is rich in phytochemicals with antidiabetic and antiobesity properties; however, it is less popular due to its bitter taste. This study was focused on developing a sauce using leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. The most acceptable composition (17.2% water, 4.8% vinegar, 3.2% sweet potato, 2.6% chili, 2.0% sugar, 2.0% cinnamon, 2.0% cardamom, 1.8% ginger, 1.8% garlic, 1.2% onion, 1.2% salt, 0.1% citric acid, and 0.1% sodium benzoate) of the sauce was with 60% leaf extract. Final product contains 73.54% ± 1.68 moisture, 19.92% ± 2.59 carbohydrate, 2.98% ± 0.44 ash, 2.61% ± 0.58 protein, 0.88% ± 0.05 fiber, and 0.05% ± 0.01 fat. The total flavonoid content was 243.67 ± 8.57 µ moles of rutin equivalent, total phenolic content was 65.44 ± 0.51 µ moles of gallic acid equivalent, and % of inhibition of DPPH of total antioxidant capacity was 43.70 ± 0.72. Sauce formulated with 1000 ppm sodium benzoate had six weeks of shelf life. The results showed that development of a sauce from G. sylvestre leaves is an effective way of delivering the health benefits to the potential consumers. O. D. A. N. Perera and P. Pavitha Copyright © 2017 O. D. A. N. Perera and P. Pavitha. All rights reserved. Effect of Maize Starch Substitution on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Gluten-Free Cookies Produced from Nixtamalized Flour Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Nixtamalized corn flour (NCF) has a good dietary fiber profile that makes it an alternative to produce gluten-free cookies because upon hydration and mixing it yields a cohesive and machinable dough. In order to improve the texture and acceptance of cookies, five different experimental treatments were devised and compared with a cookie made with refined wheat flour. A waxy native maize or pregelatinized cross-linked starches in concentrations of 5% and 10% were evaluated. Results showed that the spread factor, diameter, and thickness of the different types of cookies were not statistically different (). With the exception of the control and cookies made with 10% waxy starch which were rated with lower scores, the rest of the treatments were not significantly different in terms of sensory attributes. The texture of cookies evaluated by panelists related to the objective texture was determined with the texture analyzer. Cookies made from the composite flour containing 10% pregelatinized cross-linked were softer or had lower maximum positive force after 5 days of storage. This particular gluten-free cookie contained 65% more dietary fiber compared to the wheat flour counterpart and had the best sensory attributes among all treatments including the cookie made with refined wheat flour. Esther Pérez-Carrillo, Alicia Frías-Escobar, Karla Gutiérrez-Mendívil, Sara Guajardo-Flores, and Sergio O. Serna-Saldívar Copyright © 2017 Esther Pérez-Carrillo et al. All rights reserved. Amino Acid Profiles, Total Nitrogen Contents, and Computed-Protein Efficiency Ratios of Manihot esculenta Root and Dioscorea rotundata Tuber Peels Thu, 17 Nov 2016 14:35:50 +0000 Tuberous roots of cassava and yam are major sources of dietary carbohydrate to human, alternative sources of energy in livestock feeds, and sources of starch in small-scale industries. Investigations on amino acid profiles, total nitrogen contents, and computed-protein efficiency ratios (C-PER) of tuberous root peels of Manihot esculenta Crantz and Dioscorea rotundata Poir. were carried out. Amino acid analysis was carried out using ion-exchange chromatography methods. Total nitrogen content was measured using the micro-Kjeldahl methods. The C-PER was calculated using regression equation. The concentrations of amino acids detected in the cassava peels ranged from 0.54 to 6.54 g/100 g protein, whereas those of yam peels were between 0.37 and 6.25 g/100 g protein. The total amino acid concentration of the cassava peels was not significantly () higher than that of the yam peels. Essential amino acid scores showed that Phe + Tyr and Met + Cys were the most abundant and limiting amino acids, respectively, in cassava and yam peels. The percentage nitrogen content and C-PER of the cassava peels were significantly () higher than those of the yam peels. The cassava and yam peels were not sources of good quality proteins. Therefore, the use of cassava or yam peels as livestock feeds should be supplemented with other sources rich in good quality proteins. Paul Chidoka Chikezie, Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem, Odinakachi Stella Monago, Ferdinand Nkem Mbagwu, and Chibuike Udodi Nwachukwu Copyright © 2016 Paul Chidoka Chikezie et al. All rights reserved. Interaction among Nutritive, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Rabbit Sausages Mon, 29 Aug 2016 09:25:39 +0000 The nutritive, textural, and sensory properties of commercial fresh rabbit sausages and their interactions were evaluated. The mean contents of moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate were 43.89 ± 1.66%, 9.82 ± 2.71%, 22.37 ± 1.7%, 2.99 ± 0.10%, and 20.94 ± 3.05%, respectively. Conversely, the mean values of hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness were 103.36 ± 3.48 N, −4.54 ± 1.58 N s, 3.38 ± 0.67 mm, 0.15 ± 0.03, 16.07 ± 3.20 N, and 55.73 ± 20.44 N mm, respectively. The moisture and protein contents showed significant negative correlation while three remaining nutritive properties showed significant positive correlation with textural properties ( for all parameters). The score for nonparametric ranking of sensory properties like appearance/colour, flavour, juiciness, and tenderness ranged from 28.28 to 38.78, 29.41 to 35.91, 30.06 to 37.38, 26.75 to 40.69, and 29.03 to 36.75, respectively. In conclusion, rabbit sausages formulated with low quantities of moisture and protein result in hard sausages with low acceptability by sensory panellist. To improve the sausages, it is recommended that processors develop an optimal formulation. Joseph M. Wambui, Edward G. Karuri, and Margaret M. M. Wanyoike Copyright © 2016 Joseph M. Wambui et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Characteristics of Kithul (Caryota urens) Flour Prepared by Different Modification Techniques Tue, 03 May 2016 09:07:47 +0000 Flour has been an ample source of research and most abundant material for a number of food applications. The aim of this study is to introduce modified Kithul flour for certain industrial requirements. Several physical and chemical treatments were employed to modify Kithul (Caryota urens) flour. The effects of pregelatinization (PG-I and II), acid modification (AC), and dextrinization (DX) on their swelling power, solubility, granular morphology, viscosity, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were studied. At 75°C, pregelatinized treated (PG-II) flour had a high solubility (5.31), while at 70°C pregelatinized treated (PG-I) flour had a low solubility (4.47) as compared to the solubility of native flour sample (RW = 4.88). Same pattern has been followed by the swelling power while viscosity showed the highest value for PG-II (7296.51 Cp) and lowest value for DX treatment (873.40 Cp) as peak viscosities. There were no significant changes in granular size of all treatments compared with the native Kithul flour (45.52 μm). X-ray diffraction (XRD) also followed the same pattern by presenting Bragg’s angle () positions near 15 (Peak 1), 17 (Peak 2), 18 (Peak 3), and 23 (Peak 4) providing evidence for the presence of crystallites which belong to type A in all modified and native Kithul flour treatments. J. A. A. C. Wijesinghe, I. Wickramasinghe, and K. H. Saranandha Copyright © 2016 J. A. A. C. Wijesinghe et al. All rights reserved. Temperature Distribution Pattern of Brassica chinensis during Vacuum Cooling Sun, 28 Feb 2016 13:56:56 +0000 The temperature distribution of leafy vegetables is often less uniform than that of other vegetables during the vacuum cooling process, a factor that can cause undesired effects such as frostbite. Brassica chinensis, a type of classical leafy vegetable, was used as a model in this paper to optimize vacuum cooling technology for the whole and fresh-cut leafy vegetables. We found that noticeable temperature differences between the leaf and the petiole occurred, which resulted from their structural difference. Temperature variations of different parts of the leaf were also observed, indicating that cooling rate of leaf margin was quicker than the other parts. Our experiments show that using a moderate volumetric displacement of the chamber (0.033 s−1) is beneficial for obtaining a relative uniform temperature distribution of the leaf part. Xiao-yan Song, Bao-lin Liu, and Ganesh K. Jaganathan Copyright © 2016 Xiao-yan Song et al. All rights reserved. Formulation Optimization and Evaluation of Probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes-Loaded Sodium Alginate with Carboxymethyl Cellulose Mucoadhesive Beads Using Design Expert Software Sun, 17 Jan 2016 13:19:59 +0000 The present study deals with the formulation optimization of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes through ionotropic gelation using 32 factorial design. The effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-alginate concentration on the probiotic entrapment efficiency (PEE, %), viability in simulated gastric fluid (log CFU/g), and mucoadhesion over 8 hr (%) was optimized. The optimized beads containing probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes showed entrapment efficiency of %, viability of probiotic in simulated gastric fluid (log CFU/g) of 9.34, mucoadhesion of %, and mean diameter of  mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD. The swelling and degradation of these beads were influenced by pH of the test medium. Finally, stability tests performed at room temperature (25~28°C) highlighted a bacterial viability of about 91% and 86% after 1 and 2 months, respectively. The advantageous properties of probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes-loaded mucoadhesive beads make them suitable for incorporation in functional food and/or pharmaceutical products. Himanshu K. Solanki and Dushyant A. Shah Copyright © 2016 Himanshu K. Solanki and Dushyant A. Shah. All rights reserved. Influence of Hydrocolloids on the Quality of Major Flat Breads: A Review Wed, 13 Jan 2016 12:41:51 +0000 Flat breads are popular all over the world. There are several forms of flat bread, which differ in their methods of preparation. In comparison to pan breads, the leavened flat breads have shorter fermentation period. Nowadays, the use of additives has become a common practice in the baking industry. In this paper, supplementation of several hydrocolloids having different chemical structure and diverse origin to the flatbread making process is presented. Hydrocolloids comprise a number of water-soluble polysaccharides providing a range of functional properties that make them suitable to this application. They provide proper texture, control moisture, improve overall product quality and stability, reduce cost, and facilitate processing in the flat breads. Various gluten-free formulations have applied hydrocolloids to mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten. Hydrocolloids have been used for retarding the staling and for improving the quality of the fresh products. In addition to this, good sensory properties for visual appearance, aroma, flavor, crunchiness, and overall acceptability were obtained. Akanksha Pahwa, Amarjeet Kaur, and Ritika Puri Copyright © 2016 Akanksha Pahwa et al. All rights reserved. Technological Properties of Wheat/Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) Hardened Tubers Composite Flours Wed, 30 Dec 2015 13:50:17 +0000 The ability of trifoliate hardened-yam flours to partially substitute wheat flour in food formulations was assessed. Three varieties of hardened-yam flour were incorporated in wheat flour in proportions of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/w). Samples were evaluated for protein content, Zeleny sedimentation index, Hagberg falling number, functional properties (WAC, WSI, and OAC), and some rheological properties including dough rupture pressure (), extensibility (), stability (), and deformation energy (). Results showed that trifoliate hardened-yam flours do not have acceptable baking properties as pictured by the low Zeleny sedimentation index and the low Hagberg falling number. Protein quality (Zeleny index, 31) of wheat flour helped to compensate gluten deficit of yam flours, but the amylasic activity determined by the Hagberg falling number could not be adjusted, which resulted in a loss of extensibility () of the paste at 10% substitution. Multivariate analysis of experimental data regrouped wheat flour and all wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours in one homogeneous cluster. Although wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours had physicochemical and functional properties similar to wheat, the inadequate diastasic activity makes them inappropriate for bread making, marking the strongest influence of that parameter. Véronique Josette Essa’a, Roger M. Mbanga Baleba, and Gabriel Nama Medoua Copyright © 2015 Véronique Josette Essa’a et al. All rights reserved. Sucrose Replacement by Sweeteners in Strawberry, Raspberry, and Cherry Jams: Effect on the Textural Characteristics and Sensorial Profile—A Chemometric Approach Sun, 06 Dec 2015 10:00:19 +0000 Sucrose is the main sugar used in jams preparation; however his excessive consumption has been related to several diseases; therefore its replacement by alternative sweeteners is an attractive solution. Nonetheless, substitution of sucrose in jam’s preparation can cause changes in texture, structure, and flavor, making them less attractive to the consumers. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop strawberry, raspberry, and cherry jams with more adequate nutritional profile, maintaining their textural and flavor characteristics in comparison with the traditional formulation. Sucrose was replaced by fructose, sorbitol, or fructooligosaccharides (FOS), given the product different nutritional profiles: potential low glycemic index, reduced calories in the case of sorbitol and FOS, and enrichment with dietary fiber, in the case of FOS. After sensorial and rheological evaluation we found that the sweeteners used interfered, significantly, in the parameters measured. Fructose was the alternative sweetener yielding jams more similar to those of sucrose; however, the use of formulations containing fructose and FOS or sorbitol and FOS resulted in a 51% to 68% decrease of the energy value. Nevertheless, consumer sensorial tests are needed to evaluate, in a more consistent way, the use of these alternative sweeteners for jams production at industrial level. Alice Vilela, Sílvia Matos, Ana S. Abraão, André M. Lemos, and Fernando M. Nunes Copyright © 2015 Alice Vilela et al. All rights reserved. Acerola Fruit as a Possible Antimelanotic Agent in White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:18:43 +0000 This study aimed to testify acerola’s inhibitory activity on melanosis in farmed white shrimp (L. vannamei). Shrimp samples underwent immersion in different treatments (control group (C), metabisulphite solution group (M), and acerola solution group (A)). Quality Index Method (QIM) was used to measure the shrimp shelf life, during 21 days, where microbiological, chemical, and sensory analyses were performed at each 3 days. Groups C and A exceeded the limit of mesophilic bacterial count within 15 days of storage, and for M the period was 18 days. As for the psychrophilic bacteria, C and A both crossed the limit on day 12 and M on the 15th day. Group M had the highest TVBN and pH means, followed by A and lastly C. Yet, TMA analysis showed highest values in group C, second A, and finally M. Sensory analysis determined the shelf life of groups C, M, and A as 10.5, 14.6, and 12.3 days, respectively. There were not many significant differences between the groups in all analyses; hence, dipping shrimp in acerola solutions would not suffice to inhibit melanosis formation. Further studies are needed to fully determine acerola’s antimelanosic potential. Alex Augusto Gonçalves, Adriene Rosceli Menezes de Oliveira, and Maria Rociene Abrantes Copyright © 2015 Alex Augusto Gonçalves et al. All rights reserved. Multienzyme Modification of Hemp Protein for Functional Peptides Synthesis Tue, 24 Nov 2015 10:41:54 +0000 Functional foods and nutraceuticals are of special importance, particularly for their impact on human health and prevention of certain chronic diseases. Consequently, the production and properties of bioactive peptides have received an increasing scientific interest over past few years. Present work intends to compare the competence of metalloendopeptidases (“Protease N” and “Protease A”) with papain for getting functional peptides from hemp seed meal, which is an obligatory waste of hemp fiber production industry. As a measure of the functional potential hemp protein hydrolysates were analyzed for their antiradical properties in DPPH system. “Protease N” modified protein hydrolysate exhibited comparatively superior radical scavenging activity in DPPH system. Overall findings represent the importance of “Protease N,” as endopeptidase in getting peptides of good antiradical properties from various protein sources. Ranjana Das Copyright © 2015 Ranjana Das. All rights reserved. Drying Kinetics of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) in a Fluidized Bed Dryer: Experimental Evaluation and Modelling Wed, 04 Nov 2015 12:07:32 +0000 The drying kinetics of eggplant were studied experimentally in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed dryer. Experiments were conducted at drying temperatures of 60, 70, and 80°C and at constant air velocity of 3.10 ms−1. The drying rate and moisture ratio were determined as a function of time. At any given temperature, only the falling rate period was observed during the drying process. Effective moisture diffusivity was in the range 2.667–4.311 × 10−8 m2/s while activation energy of 23.5 kJ mol−1 was obtained from the Arrhenius equation. The experimental moisture ratio data was fitted to ten mathematical models. Statistical analysis showed that the by Demir et al. has the best fit quality. In terms of product quality, the dried samples had low rehydration ratio of 4.889. In addition, compared to direct sunlight drying, the dried product from the fluidized bed dryer exhibited better color quality. Mohamed A. ElKhodiry, Shaima R. Suwaidi, Melika Taheri, Hams Elwalid, Dina ElBaba, and Muhammad Qasim Copyright © 2015 Mohamed A. ElKhodiry et al. All rights reserved. Nutritional Quality Characteristics of Different Types of Guangdong-Style Mooncakes Sun, 01 Nov 2015 06:50:40 +0000 This study was designed to clarify nutritional characteristics of Guangdong-style mooncakes. Proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and the cholesterol content of Guangdong-style mooncake types (DYLP, SYLP, LP, BP, FF, and FK) were analyzed and their energy was calculated. Guangdong-style mooncakes contained 15.96~19.16% moisture, 32.06∼43.12% total reducing sugar, 5.35∼9.06% protein, and 3.72∼18.74% crude fat and could provide 930.52~1403.30 kJ/100 g of energy excluding starch. FK mooncake had the lowest moisture, and LP, BP, and FF mooncakes contained high levels of reducing sugar. The main soluble sugars in Guangdong-style mooncakes were sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The fat content order was as follows: DYLP > SYLP > FK > BP > LP > FF, where DYLP contained 18.74% fat while FF only contained 3.72%. Dominating fatty acids in Guangdong-style mooncakes were C18:1 and C18:2. Cholesterol was mainly found in yolk-type mooncakes. FK mooncake had the highest protein content (9.06%). Guangdong-style mooncakes are high in moisture and sugar, but not always high in fat. Chunying Yang, Xueming Liu, Zhiyi Chen, Yaosheng Lin, Xiaoli Zhao, and Rongling Yang Copyright © 2015 Chunying Yang et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Challenges Facing Rice Processing in Nigeria Mon, 26 Oct 2015 11:38:38 +0000 Rice is the most economically important food crop in many developing countries and has also become a major crop in many developed countries where its consumption has increased considerably. It has become necessary to meet the demand of the world’s current population growth rate, and the least costly means for achieving this aim is to increase rice productivity, wherever possible. The main challenges encountered by rice processors in Nigeria are to find appropriate solutions for quality rice processing. Therefore this work provides basic information about the challenges of rice processing and focuses on the challenges faced by the small scale rice processors and reasons for continuous rice importation with a view to guiding decision-making to be self-sufficient in rice production, thereby making some improvement in Nigerian economy. A. S. Ajala and A. Gana Copyright © 2015 A. S. Ajala and A. Gana. All rights reserved. Optimizing the Extraction of Dietary Fibers from Sorghum Bran Using Response Surface Methodology Sun, 11 Oct 2015 12:36:13 +0000 Response surface methodology was used to optimize the processing parameters of the fiber extraction from sorghum bran. The studied independent factors were ethanol/bran ratio, time, temperature, and number of treatment cycles. A three-level four-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to establish the optimum conditions of extraction. The results showed that the experimental data could be fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and the model was highly significant (). The optimum extraction conditions were 11.8 mL·g−1 of ethanol/bran ratio, 60 min, 65°C, and 7 extraction cycles. The experimental yield was 35.52% which is close to the value predicted by the BBD model (34.36%). By applying the two combinations of factors generated by the path of steepest descent, the first combination (12 mL/g, 60 min, 65°C, and 8 cycles) allowed a yield of 35.50%, while the second (11 mL/g, 70 min, 55°C, and 8 cycles) exhibited a yield of 39.90% which is higher than that from the BBD model (). Compared to the first combination generated by the path of steepest descent, the BBD model conditions were economical with small number of cycles and low ethanol/bran ratio. Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo, Benoît Bargui Koubala, Germain Kansci, Brice Ulrich Foudjo Saha, and Elie Fokou Copyright © 2015 Ange-Patrice Takoudjou Miafo et al. All rights reserved. Quality Evaluation of Oil from Seeds of Wild Plant Tylosema fassoglensis in Kenya Wed, 15 Jul 2015 06:17:35 +0000 Tylosema fassoglensis is a plant species that is native to Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of oil from T. fassoglensis in Kenya. Seeds of T. fassoglensis were collected from Mombasa, Taita Taveta, Homa Bay, and Siaya regions. Counts of T. fassoglensis in each region were recorded during the entire survey period. The highest distribution was recorded in Homa Bay followed by Siaya region. Distribution was the least in Taita Taveta and Mombasa regions. The analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of the oil was performed according to the official methods of analysis and the recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists Society. Oil content of 36.4% was obtained. The oil had refractive index 1.47 at 40°C, peroxide value 6.34 meq O2/kg, iodine value 94.06 g of I2/100 g, saponification value 145.93 mg KOH/g of oil, acid value 2.49 ± 0.56 mg KOH/g of oil, and unsaponifiable matter 5.87 g/kg. The oil had Lovibond color index of 2.0Y+28.0R. Oil content of T. fassoglensis is comparable with those of most oil crop under commercial production. The physicochemical properties of oil from T. fassoglensis are within the range recommended by FAO/WHO and hence suitable for human consumption. Ojwang D. Otieno, Okewo B. Awuor, and Wanjala G. Wafula Copyright © 2015 Ojwang D. Otieno et al. All rights reserved. Optimization on Tartary Buckwheat Enriched Steamed Bread: A Response Surface Methodology Study Sun, 21 Jun 2015 12:19:07 +0000 Tartary buckwheat, rich in bioactive components such as flavonoids, has been proved beneficial to human health and prevention from many diseases. However, its utilization is limited due to bitterness, roughness, and hardness. The present study was to develop a kind of Tartary buckwheat enriched steamed bread with blends of Tartary buckwheat flour, wheat flour, gluten, glucose oxidase, and pentosanase, using response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the formula. The independent variables investigated in the present study were the additive amount of gluten, glucose oxidase, and pentosanase, with bread volume and sensory evaluation value as response variables. Based on a basic formula consisting of 250 g Tartary buckwheat flour, 250 g wheat flour, 15 g yeast, and 300 mL water, the obtained optimum formula was 41.20 g gluten, 1032 U glucose oxidase, and 56 U pentosanase. Gluten and GOD demonstrated statistically significant effects on Tartary buckwheat steamed bread volume and sensory evaluation values. The validation test results of the optimum formula, with relative error as 0.98% and 2.55%, were consistent with the theoretically predicted values, demonstrating the reliability of equation and effectiveness of RSM. Xia Wang and Tianliang Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xia Wang and Tianliang Zhang. All rights reserved. Utilization of Chicken By-Products to Form Collagen Films Sun, 22 Feb 2015 08:03:17 +0000 Chicken collagen casings could be an alternate source of collagen casings that are manufactured for sausages. The overall objective of this project was to extract chicken collagen from by-products of the broiler processing industries and to explore the possibility of making films. Chicken skin was washed, ground, and pretreated to remove the noncollagenous compounds. Collagen was extracted using acetic acid and pepsin. Solubilized collagen was salted-out and centrifuged at 20,000 ×g at 4°C for one hour. The precipitates were dissolved in 0.5 M acetic acid and dialyzed against 0.1 M acetic acid and distilled water before freeze-drying. Molecular weight, collagen solubility at different pH values, and NaCl concentrations were determined. TA-XT2 texture analyzer was used to characterize mechanical properties of collagen films. The highest collagen solubility was obtained at pH 2 and 2% NaCl. Hand-homogenized, nonfiltered, and conditioned samples had the highest hardness (3,262 g) and the least brittleness (30.5 mm). These results demonstrate that chicken collagen extracted from chicken by-products has the ability to form films and could be considered for making casings or be used in various other industries. Kumudini A. Munasinghe, Jurgen G. Schwarz, and Matthew Whittiker Copyright © 2015 Kumudini A. Munasinghe et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Chicken Collagen from Law Market Value By-Products as an Alternate Source” Thu, 19 Feb 2015 11:26:31 +0000 Kumudini A. Munasinghe, Jurgen G. Schwarz, and Anthony K. Nyame Copyright © 2015 Kumudini A. Munasinghe et al. All rights reserved. A Robust Machine Vision Algorithm Development for Quality Parameters Extraction of Circular Biscuits and Cookies Digital Images Wed, 31 Dec 2014 08:27:00 +0000 Biscuits and cookies are one of the major parts of Indian bakery products. The bake level of biscuits and cookies is of significant value to various bakery products as it determines the taste, texture, number of chocolate chips, uniformity in distribution of chocolate chips, and various features related to appearance of products. Six threshold methods (isodata, Otsu, minimum error, moment preserving, Fuzzy, manual method, and k-mean clustering) have been implemented for chocolate chips extraction from captured cookie image. Various other image processing operations such as entropy calculation, area calculation, parameter calculation, baked dough color, solidity, and fraction of top surface area have been implemented for commercial KrackJack biscuits and cookies. Proposed algorithm is able to detect and investigate about various defects such as crack and various spots. A simple and low cost machine vision system with improved version of robust algorithm for quality detection and identification is envisaged. Developed system and robust algorithm have a great application in various biscuit and cookies baking companies. Proposed system is composed of a monochromatic light source, and USB based 10.0 megapixel camera interfaced with ARM-9 processor for image acquisition. MATLAB version 5.2 has been used for development of robust algorithms and testing for various captured frames. Developed methods and procedures were tested on commercial biscuits resulting in the specificity and sensitivity of more than 94% and 82%, respectively. Since developed software package has been tested on commercial biscuits, it can be programmed to inspect other manufactured bakery products. Satyam Srivastava, Sachin Boyat, and Shashikant Sadistap Copyright © 2014 Satyam Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Thermal, Structural, and Physical Properties of Freeze Dried Tropical Fruit Powder Mon, 22 Dec 2014 07:51:09 +0000 This study evaluates the physical properties of freeze dried tropical (guava, sapota, and papaya) fruit powders. Thermal stability and weight loss were evaluated using TGA-DSC and IR, which showed pectin as the main solid constituent. LCR meter measured electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss factor. Functional groups assessed by FTIR showed presence of chlorides, and O–H and N–H bonds in guava, chloride and C–H bond in papaya, and chlorides, and C=O and C–H bonds in sapota. Particle size and type of starch were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and microstructure through scanning electronic microscopy. A semicrystalline profile and average particle size of the fruit powders were evidenced by X-ray diffraction and lamellar/spherical morphologies by SEM. Presence of A-type starch was observed in all three fruits. Dependence of electric and dielectric properties on frequency and temperature was observed. K. A. Athmaselvi, C. Kumar, M. Balasubramanian, and Ishita Roy Copyright © 2014 K. A. Athmaselvi et al. All rights reserved. Protease from Aspergillus oryzae: Biochemical Characterization and Application as a Potential Biocatalyst for Production of Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activities Mon, 08 Dec 2014 10:43:13 +0000 This study reports the biochemical characterization of a protease from Aspergillus oryzae LBA 01 and the study of the antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysates produced with this protease. The biochemical characterization showed that the enzyme was most active over the pH range 5.0–5.5 and was stable from pH 4.5 to 5.5. The optimum temperature range for activity was 55–60°C, and the enzyme was stable at temperatures below 45°C. The activation energy () for azocasein hydrolysis and temperature quotient () were found to be 37.98 kJ mol−1 and 1.64–1.53 at temperature range from 30 to 55°C, respectively. The enzyme exhibited of 97.63 min and a value of 324.31 at the optimum temperature for activity (57.2°C). Protease from A. oryzae LBA 01 was shown as a potentially useful biocatalyst for protein hydrolysis, increasing the antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate, bovine whey protein, and egg white protein from 2.0- to 10.0-fold. Ruann Janser Soares de Castro and Helia Harumi Sato Copyright © 2014 Ruann Janser Soares de Castro and Helia Harumi Sato. All rights reserved. Effect of Thermal Processing on the Nutritional, Antinutritional, and Antioxidant Properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (African Walnut) Sun, 09 Nov 2014 12:04:29 +0000 The effect of thermal processing (roasting and boiling) on the nutritional, antinutritional, and antioxidant properties of African walnut was studied. Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut) was subjected to thermal treatment of roasting (RWIS), boiling with shell (BWIS), and boiling without shell (BWOS). The resulting samples with raw nut (RAAW) which served as control were analysed for proximate composition, antinutritional components, and antioxidant activity. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the samples on dry basis were 29.14%, 54.14%, and 3.32% (RAAW); 24.13%, 61.75%, and 2.77% (BWIS); 22.47%, 62.65%, and 2.16% (BWOS); and 24.25%, 60.52%, and 2.48% (RWIS), respectively. Thermal processing had significant effect on all the proximate principles; boiling and roasting generally reduced the protein and ash contents of the nut. Boiling with or without shell reduced the phytate and tannin contents of the nut while roasting increased the level of these two antinutritional components; walnut boiled without shell however, had the lowest phytate and tannin contents of 0.815 mg/100 g and 0.239 mg/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the samples were 8.47% (RAAW), 13.82% (BWIS), 14.96% (BWOS), and 7.29% (RWIS). This study reveals that thermal processing has a significant effect on the proximate principles, bioavailability, and antioxidant activity of African walnut. S. Olanrewaju Arinola and Kunle Adesina Copyright © 2014 S. Olanrewaju Arinola and Kunle Adesina. All rights reserved. Description of Guava Osmotic Dehydration Using a Three-Dimensional Analytical Diffusion Model Thu, 06 Nov 2014 09:42:21 +0000 The mass migrations during osmotic dehydration of guava were studied. Parallelepiped shaped slices were dipping in syrup of distilled water and sucrose with two concentrations and two temperatures. It was supposed that a three-dimensional diffusion model with boundary condition of the first kind satisfactorily describes the mass migrations and that the volume and effective mass diffusivities can be assumed constant during the process. The effective mass diffusivities were determined by coupling the three-dimensional analytical solution of the diffusion equation with an optimizer based on the inverse method. The proposed model well described the kinetics of water and sucrose migrations and enabled determining the mass distributions (water and sucrose) within the product at any instant. Wilton Pereira da Silva, Cleide M. D. P. S. e Silva, and Kalina Lígia Cavalcante de Almeida Farias Aires Copyright © 2014 Wilton Pereira da Silva et al. All rights reserved. A Ready-to-Eat Antioxidant Rich Appetizer Based on Coleus aromaticus: Its Development and Shelf Life Evaluation Wed, 08 Oct 2014 11:47:42 +0000 Antioxidant rich products are valued due to their health benefits and appetizers are required in several pathological and geographical stress situations such as prolonged exposure to altitude. The paper deals with the development of a shelf stable RTE (ready-to-eat) antioxidant rich herbal appetizer convenient to the consumer. Using ginger and Karpurvalli (Coleus aromaticus) as two independent variables, a central composite design with 13 experimental combinations was obtained. These combinations were processed by concentration and dehydration into the appetizer RTE munches using preprocessed ingredients and evaluated for antioxidant activity, vitamin C, and sensory characteristics. The product optimized using Design Expert Statistical Software had the proximate composition of 11.4% fat, 2.3% protein, and 75.0% carbohydrates, supplying about 82.36 Kcals per munch of 20 g. The munches packed in metalized polyester pouches had a shelf life of 10 months at 28 ± 5°C as well as 37°C storage. The RTE appetizer based on Coleus aromaticus was developed with excellent sensory properties and shelf stability. Pawan Kumar, Dadasaheb Wadikar, and Prakash Patki Copyright © 2014 Pawan Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese Thu, 02 Oct 2014 09:30:49 +0000 The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific processing conditions (pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature) on the composition, yield, rheology, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Results showed the impact of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on spreadable goat cheese. The results indicated that it is possible to improve cheese yield, rheological properties, and sensory analysis when milk is pasteurized at 75°C for 30 minutes; cheese yield can also be improved by lowering incubation temperature to 37°C. Cheeses made with autochthonous starter culture showed better sensory characteristics and higher pH compared to the cheeses made with commercial culture. Florencia Frau, Graciela Font de Valdez, and Nora Pece Copyright © 2014 Florencia Frau et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Phytase Treatment on Phosphate Availability in the Potential Food Supplement Corn Distillers’ Grains with Solubles Wed, 01 Oct 2014 09:10:56 +0000 The most effective treatment of the potential food supplement corn distillers’ grains with solubles using a fungal phytase to degrade phytic acid and release phosphorus was explored. Compared to the untreated grains with solubles, the phytic acid level in the grains with solubles was reduced by phytase treatment but treatment with 4 units of enzyme/g was more effective than 2 units of enzyme/g after 2 h. At 30°C or 45°C, 4 units of phytase/g reduced the phytic acid content of the grains with solubles by at least 94% after 2 h. The available phosphate in the grains treated for 2 h with 4 units of enzyme/g was increased by at least 1.5-fold compared to the untreated grains. Although phytic acid levels in the grains with solubles was reduced at 28°C, 30°C, 37°C, 40°C, or 45°C using 4 units of phytase/g for 2 h, the greatest reduction (96%) in phytic acid concentration occurred at 40°C. The available phosphate in the phytase-treated grains at 40°C was increased after 2 h by 1.9-fold compared to the control grains. Overall, phytase treatment of this potential food supplement improved it by increasing its phosphate content while reducing its phytic acid content. Thomas P. West Copyright © 2014 Thomas P. West. All rights reserved. Effects of Processing (Boiling and Roasting) on the Nutritional and Antinutritional Properties of Bambara Groundnuts (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.) from Southern Kaduna, Nigeria Thu, 25 Sep 2014 12:36:57 +0000 This research analyzed the effect of processing (boiling and roasting) on the proximate, antinutrient, and mineral composition of Vigna subterranea seeds. The proximate composition analysis showed significant difference () between the levels of crude lipid, crude fiber, gross energy, carbohydrate, and moisture content in the raw and processed V. subterranea. However, no significant difference () was observed in protein content of processed V. subterranea as compared to the raw seeds. Analyses of antinutrient composition show that processing significantly reduced the levels of oxalate, tannins, phytate, trypsin inhibitor, and hydrogen cyanide contents of V. subterranea. While magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus were the most abundant macrominerals in V. subterranea, zinc was the most abundant micromineral. Correlation analysis revealed that the levels of crude protein, ash, moisture, and lipid were negatively affected by phytate, tannins, and oxalate. The results, therefore, suggest that processing significantly lowered the levels of antinutrients in V. subterranea, thereby making it safer for consumption. Uche Samuel Ndidi, Charity Unekwuojo Ndidi, Idowu Asegame Aimola, Obed Yakubu Bassa, Mary Mankilik, and Zainab Adamu Copyright © 2014 Uche Samuel Ndidi et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Microwave Pretreatment of Apple Raw Material on the Nutrients and Antioxidant Activities of Apple Juice Tue, 26 Aug 2014 12:43:41 +0000 Microwave technology has been widely applied in food processing. To investigate the effects of microwave pretreatment of raw material on the nutrients and antioxidant activities of apple juice, the apple materials were treated with 90, 270, 450, 720, and 900 W microwave at 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 s, respectively. The results showed that after the raw materials were treated with microwave, the vitamin C, amino nitrogen, and anthocyanin content decreased, and the total flavonoids and polyphenol of apple juice increased. Further, the total polyphenol of apple juice originating from raw material treated with 900 W microwave through 75 s was 115% higher than that of control samples. The antioxidant activities of prepared apple juice increased in terms of diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. So appropriate microwave pretreatment of apple raw material could increase some specific nutrients and enhance the antioxidant activities of apple juice. Shaoying Zhang and Rui Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shaoying Zhang and Rui Zhang. All rights reserved.