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Journal of Food Quality
Volume 2017, Article ID 2969324, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2969324
Research Article

Physicochemical Changes of Cocoa Beans during Roasting Process

1Laboratorio de Ingeniería de Procesos, División Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias (DACA), Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT), Carretera Villahermosa-Teapa Km. 25, La Huasteca, 86280 Centro, TAB, Mexico
2División Académica de Ingeniería y Arquitectura (DAIA), Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT), Carretera Cunduacán-Jalpa de Méndez Km. 1, Col. La Esmeralda, Cunduacán, TAB, Mexico
3Instituto Tecnológico de Ciudad Madero (ITCM), Juventino Rosas esq. Jesús Urueta, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Ciudad Madero, TAMPS, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Pedro García-Alamilla; xm.taju@aaicrag.ordep

Received 2 March 2017; Revised 27 April 2017; Accepted 2 May 2017; Published 2 July 2017

Academic Editor: Ángel Calín-Sánchez

Copyright © 2017 Pedro García-Alamilla et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

During cocoa beans roasting, there are physicochemical changes that develop the chocolate quality attributes. Roasting systems have a particular influence on the development of these characteristics, and the effects of operation variables for each system must be evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of roasting time and temperature in a rotatory system on cocoa beans physicochemical parameters of quality as moisture, water activity, pH, total acidity, color , total phenolic content (TPC), and DPPH radical capacity. Cocoa beans were roasted as a function with a central rotatable design with 22 + 5 central points and 4 axial points (1.414, 1, 0, +1, and +1,414) and a response surface methodology was applied. Temperature and time levels were 110–170°C and 5–65 minutes, respectively. The effect of the variables was nonlinear and modeled with a second-order response polynomial. Roasting time and temperature presented a significative effect () on the response variables except for both TPC and DPPH radical capacity in aqueous extract.