Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Food Quality
Volume 2017, Article ID 2969324, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2969324
Research Article

Physicochemical Changes of Cocoa Beans during Roasting Process

1Laboratorio de Ingeniería de Procesos, División Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias (DACA), Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT), Carretera Villahermosa-Teapa Km. 25, La Huasteca, 86280 Centro, TAB, Mexico
2División Académica de Ingeniería y Arquitectura (DAIA), Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT), Carretera Cunduacán-Jalpa de Méndez Km. 1, Col. La Esmeralda, Cunduacán, TAB, Mexico
3Instituto Tecnológico de Ciudad Madero (ITCM), Juventino Rosas esq. Jesús Urueta, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Ciudad Madero, TAMPS, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Pedro García-Alamilla; xm.taju@aaicrag.ordep

Received 2 March 2017; Revised 27 April 2017; Accepted 2 May 2017; Published 2 July 2017

Academic Editor: Ángel Calín-Sánchez

Copyright © 2017 Pedro García-Alamilla et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Sacchetti, F. Ioannone, M. De Gregorio, C. Di Mattia, M. Serafini, and D. Mastrocola, “Non enzymatic browning during cocoa roasting as affected by processing time and temperature,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 169, article 8295, pp. 44–52, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Cros, “Torréfaction. En Cacao et chocolat. production, utilisation, caractéristiques,” in Collection sciences techniques agroalimentaires, (Technique & Documentation Lavoisier), Paris Cedex 08, France, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. Saltini, R. Akkerman, and S. Frosch, “Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: a review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality,” Food Control, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 167–187, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. A. Hernández, B. Heyd, C. Irles, B. Valdovinos, and G. Trystram, “Analysis of the heat and mass transfer during coffee batch roasting,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 1141–1148, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. Schwartzberg, “Modeling Bean Heating during Batch Roasting of Coffee Beans,” in Engineering and Food for the 21st Century, J. Welti-Chanes, G. Barbosa-Canovas, and J. M. Aguilera, Eds., vol. 5 of Food Preservation Technology, CRC Press, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. M. J. Serrano-Maldonado, I. Guerrero-Legarreta, C. De la Paz Pérez-Olvera, and J. Soriano-Santos, “ntioxidant activity and citotoxic effect of Cladocolealoniceroides (van Tieghem) Kuijt (loranthaceae),” Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, vol. 10, pp. 161–170, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  7. E. García-Márquez, A. Román-Guerrero, C. Pérez-Alonso, F. Cruz-Sosa, R. Jiménez-Alvarado, and E. J. Vernon-Carter, “Effect of solvent-temperature extraction conditions on the initial antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of muitle extracts and their decay upon storage at different pH,” Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. S. Noor-Soffalina, S. Jinap, S. Nazamid, and S. A. H. Nazimah, “Effect of polyphenol and pH on cocoa Maillard-related flavour precursors in a lipidic model system,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 168–180, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Jinap, W. I. Wan Rosli, A. R. Russly, and L. M. Nordin, “Effect of roasting time and temperature on volatile component profiles during nib roasting of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao),” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 441–448, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Ioannone, C. D. Di Mattia, M. De Gregorio, M. Sergi, M. Serafini, and G. Sacchetti, “Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing,” Food Chemistry, vol. 174, pp. 256–262, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. S. De Brito, N. H. P. García, M. I. Gallão, A. L. Cortelazzo, P. S. Fevereiro, and M. R. Braga, “Structural and chemical changes in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) during fermentation, drying and roasting,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 281–288, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Pontillon and E. Cros, “Méthodes analytiques pour le cacao et produits dérivés. En Cacao et chocolat. production, utilisation, caractéristiques,” in Collection sciences & techniques agroalimentaire, (Technique & Documentation Lavoisier), Paris Cedex 08, France, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  13. A. Othman, A. Ismail, N. Abdul Ghani, and I. Adenan, “Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of cocoa beans,” Food Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1523–1530, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. M. H. Farah, A. H. Zaibunnisa, and Misnawi, “Optimization of cocoa beans roasting process using response surface methodology based on concentration of pyrazine and acrylamide,” International Food Research Journal, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1355–1359, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. V. A. Sakkas, M. A. Islam, C. Stalikas, and T. A. Albanis, “Photocatalytic degradation using design of experiments: a review and example of the Congo red degradation,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 175, no. 1–3, pp. 33–44, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. R. T. Tarley, G. Silveira, W. N. L. dos Santos et al., “Chemometric tools in electroanalytical chemistry: methods for optimization based on factorial design and response surface methodology,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 58–67, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. A. Bezerra, R. E. Santelli, E. P. Oliveira, L. S. Villar, and L. A. Escaleira, “Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry,” Talanta, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 965–977, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, John Wiley & Sons, 8th edition, 2012. View at MathSciNet
  19. H. Gutiérrez-Pulido and R. N. de la Vara-Salazar, Análisis Y Diseño De Experimentos, Mc Graw Hill Interamericana, México, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. W. Zzaman and T. A. Yang, “Moisture, color and texture changes in cocoa beans during superheated steam roasting,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1364–1370, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Páramo, P. García-Alamilla, M. A. Salgado-Cervantes, V. J. Robles-Olvera, G. C. Rodríguez-Jimenes, and M. A. García-Alvarado, “Mass transfer of water and volatile fatty acids in cocoa beans during drying,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 276–283, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. García-Alamilla, M. A. Salgado-Cervantes, M. Barel, G. Berthomieu, G. C. Rodríguez-Jimenes, and M. A. García-Alvarado, “Moisture, acidity and temperature evolution during cacao drying,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 1159–1165, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Lee, S. Yoo, M. Lee, I. Kwon, and Y. Pyun, “Optimization of nibs roasting in cocoa bean processing with lotte-better taste and color process,” Food Science and Biotechnology, vol. 10, pp. 286–293, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. W. Krysiak, “Influence of roasting conditions on coloration of roasted cocoa beans,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 449–453, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Ramli, O. Hassan, M. Said, W. Samsudin, and N. A. Idris, “Influence of roasting conditions on volatile flavor of roasted Malaysian cocoa beans,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 280–298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Apriyantono and J. M. Ames, “Xylose‐lysine model systems: the effect of pH on the volatile reaction products,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 477–484, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Hashim, J. Selamat, S. K. S. Muhammad, and A. Ali, “Changes in free amino acid, peptide-N, sugar and pyrazine concentration during cocoa fermentation,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 535–542, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Żyżelewicz, W. Krysiak, E. Nebesny, and G. Budryn, “Application of various methods for determination of the color of cocoa beans roasted under variable process parameters,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 238, no. 4, pp. 549–563, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Shakerardekani, R. Karim, H. Mohd Ghazali, and N. L. Chin, “Effect of roasting conditions on hardness, moisture content and colour of pistachio kernels,” International Food Research Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 723–729, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. Zzaman, R. Bhat, and T. A. Yang, “Effect of superheated steam roasting on the phenolic antioxidant properties of cocoa beans,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1932–1938, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier, and C. Berset, “Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Reyes-Munguía, E. Azúara-Nieto, C. I. Beristain, F. Cruz-Sosa, and E. J. Vernon-Carter, “Purple maguey (Rhoeo discolor) antioxidant properties,” Ciencia y Tecnologia Alimentaria, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 209–216, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Arlorio, M. Locatelli, F. Travaglia et al., “Roasting on the contents of clovamide (N-caffeoyl-L-DOPA) and the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacaoL.),” Food Chemistry, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 967–975, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Summa, F. C. Raposo, J. McCourt et al., “Effect of roasting on the radical scavenging activity of cocoa beans,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 222, no. 3-4, pp. 368–375, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus