Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Food Quality
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4193672, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4193672
Research Article

Influence of Roasting on Sensory, Antioxidant, Aromas, and Physicochemical Properties of Carob Pod Powder (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

1Laboratoire Produits Naturels (LAPRONA), Université de Tlemcen, 13000 Tlemcen, Algeria
2INRA, UMR408, GREEN Extraction Team, Université d’Avignon, 84000 Avignon, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Ikram Boublenza and Farid Chemat

Received 8 June 2017; Revised 28 July 2017; Accepted 17 August 2017; Published 11 October 2017

Academic Editor: Daming Fan

Copyright © 2017 Ikram Boublenza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Hillcoat, G. Lewis, and B. Verdcourt, “A New Species of Ceratonia (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) from Arabia and the Somali Republic,” Kew Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 2, p. 261, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. R. W. Owen, R. Haubner, W. E. Hull et al., “Isolation and structure elucidation of the major individual polyphenols in carob fibre,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1727–1738, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Barracosa, J. Osório, and A. Cravador, “Evaluation of fruit and seed diversity and characterization of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) cultivars in Algarve region,” Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 250–257, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Naghmouchi, M. L. Khouja, A. Romero, J. Tous, and M. Boussaid, “Tunisian carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) populations: Morphological variability of pods and kernel,” Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 125–130, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Durazzo, V. Turfani, V. Narducci, E. Azzini, G. Maiani, and M. Carcea, “Nutritional characterisation and bioactive components of commercial carobs flours,” Food Chemistry, vol. 153, pp. 109–113, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Seczyk, M. Swieca, and U. Gawlik-Dziki, “Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta,” Food Chemistry, vol. 194, pp. 637–642, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. L. Iipumbu, Compositional analysis of locally cultivated carob (Ceratonia siliqua) cultivars and development of nutritional food products for a range of market sectors, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 2008.
  8. I. Battle and J. Tous, “J. Carob tree. Ceratonia siliqua L,” in Promoting the Conservation and use of Under-utilised and Neglected Crops, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research and Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resource Institute, Rome, Italy, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. Khlifa, A. Bahloul, and S. Kitane, “Determination of chemical composition of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L) and its morphological study,” Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 348–353, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. M. Nasar-Abbas, Z. e-Huma, T.-H. Vu, M. K. Khan, H. Esbenshade, and V. Jayasena, “Carob Kibble: A Bioactive-Rich Food Ingredient,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. G. Bernardo-Gil, R. Roque, L. B. Roseiro, L. C. Duarte, F. Gírio, and P. Esteves, “Supercritical extraction of carob kibbles (Ceratonia siliqua L.),” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 59, pp. 36–42, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. B. Roseiro, C. S. Tavares, J. C. Roseiro, and A. P. Rauter, “Antioxidants from aqueous decoction of carob pods biomass (Ceretonia siliqua L.): Optimisation using response surface methodology and phenolic profile by capillary electrophoresis,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 44, pp. 119–126, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Karababa and Y. Coşkuner, “Physical properties of carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.): An industrial gum yielding crop,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 440–446, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. K. Yousif and H. M. Alghzawi, “Processing and characterization of carob powder,” Food Chemistry, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 283–287, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. A. Ayaz, H. Torun, S. Ayaz et al., “Determination of chemical composition of anatolian carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.): sugars, amino and organic acids, minerals and phenolic compounds,” Journal of Food Quality, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1040–1055, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. B. Hmamou, R. Salghi, A. Zarrouk et al., “Carob seed oil: an efficient inhibitor of C38 steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid,” International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 1, article no. 25, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Ercan, T. Irfan, and K. Mustafa, “Optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a stirred tank bioreactor,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 135, pp. 365–371, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. U. Cakilcioğlu and I. Turkoğlu, “Plants and fruits used for cholesterol treatment by the folk in Elazig,” Phytologia Balcanica, vol. 13, pp. 239–245, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  19. N. A. Jaradat, Medical Plants Utilized in Palestinian Folk Medicine for Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiac Diseases, Al-Aqsa University, 2005.
  20. E. Lev and Z. Amar, “Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional drugs sold in the Kingdom of Jordan,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 82, no. 2-3, pp. 131–145, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. Loeb, Y. Vandenplas, P. Würsch, and P. Guesry, “Tannin-Rich carob pod for the treatment of acute-onset diarrhea,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 480–485, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Kivçak, B. Mert, and H. T. Öztürk, “Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Ceratonia siliqua L. extracts,” Turkish Journal of Biology, vol. 26, pp. 197–200, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Ben Hsouna, A. S. Alayed, and E. M. Abdallah, “Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extract of pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. against some pathogens and spoilage bacteria,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 3480–3484, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. B. Biner, H. Gubbuk, M. Karhan, M. Aksu, and M. Pekmezci, “Sugar profiles of the pods of cultivated and wild types of carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Turkey,” Food Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1453–1455, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Roukas, “Citric acid production from carob pod by solid-state fermentation,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 24, no. 1-2, pp. 54–59, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Tous, A. Romero, J. F. Hermoso, A. Ninot, J. Plana, and I. Batlle, “Agronomic and commercial performance of four Spanish carob cultivars,” HortTechnology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 465–470, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. A. Dakia, B. Wathelet, and M. Paquot, “Isolation and chemical evaluation of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) seed germ,” Food Chemistry, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1368–1374, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. Rizzo, F. Tomaselli, A. Gentile, S. La Malfa, and E. Maccarone, “Rheological properties and sugar composition of locust bean gum from different carob varieties (Ceratonia siliqua L.),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 26, pp. 7925–7930, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Bengoechea, A. Romero, A. Villanueva et al., “Composition and structure of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ proteins,” Food Chemistry, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 675–683, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. D. Petit and J. M. Pinilla, “Production and purification of a sugar syrup from carob pods,” LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 145–152, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. Turhan, K. L. Bialka, A. Demirci, and M. Karhan, “Enhanced ethanol production from carob extract by Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” in Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, pp. 2040–2052, 2009. View at Scopus
  32. M. Germec, I. Turhan, M. Karhan, and A. Demirci, “Ethanol production via repeated-batch fermentation from carob pod extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biofilm reactor,” Fuel, vol. 161, pp. 304–311, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Berna, M. B. Pérez-Gago, V. G. Guardiola, D. Salazar, and A. Mulet, “Effect of Temperature on Isobutyric Acid Loss during Roasting of Carob Kibble,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 4084–4087, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Barroso, V. de Oliveira, A. Garcia, D. Doneda, L. Ouriques, and M. Vieira, “Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Sandwich Cookies Made with Carob Powder,” Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 290–295, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. C. S. Rosa, K. Tessele, R. C. Prestes, M. Silveira, and F. Franco, “Effect of substituting of cocoa powder for carob flour in cakes made with soy and banana flours,” International Food Research Journal, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 2111–2118, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. R. Oziyci, N. Tetik, I. Turhan et al., “Mineral composition of pods and seeds of wild and grafted carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) fruits,” Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 167, pp. 149–152, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Tetik and E. Yüksel, “Ultrasound-assisted extraction of d-pinitol from carob pods using Response Surface Methodology,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 860–865, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Cháfer and A. Berna, “Study of kinetics of the d-pinitol extraction from carob pods using supercritical CO2,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 94, pp. 212–215, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Kumazawa, M. Taniguchi, Y. Suzuki, M. Shimura, M.-S. Kwon, and T. Nakayama, “Antioxidant activity of polyphenols in carob pods,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 373–377, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Saura-Calixto, J. Pérez-Jiménez, S. Touriño et al., “Proanthocyanidin metabolites associated with dietary fibre from in vitro colonic fermentation and proanthocyanidin metabolites in human plasma,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 939–946, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Klenow and M. Glei, “New insight into the influence of carob extract and gallic acid on hemin induced modulation of HT29 cell growth parameters,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1055–1061, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. L. Croze and C. O. Soulage, “Potential role and therapeutic interests of myo-inositol in metabolic diseases,” Biochimie, vol. 95, no. 10, pp. 1811–1827, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Bañuls, S. Rovira-Llopis, R. Falcón et al., “Chronic consumption of an inositol-enriched carob extract improves postprandial glycaemia and insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects: A randomized controlled trial,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 600–607, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Ruiz-Roso, J. C. Quintela, E. de la Fuente, J. Haya, and L. Pérez-Olleros, “Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujects,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. J. F. Zunft, W. Lüder, A. Harde et al., “Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble fibre lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 235–242, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. Ortega, A. Macià, M.-P. Romero, J. Reguant, and M.-J. Motilva, “Matrix composition effect on the digestibility of carob flour phenols by an in-vitro digestion model,” Food Chemistry, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. Pingret, A.-S. Fabiano-Tixier, E. Petitcolas, J.-P. Canselier, and F. Chemat, “First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. C287–C292, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. Hill, T. Roger, and F. W. Vorragen, “Comparative analysis of the quantization of color spaces on the basis of the CIELAB color-difference formula,” ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 109–154, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Meullemiestre, C. Breil, M. Abert-Vian, and F. Chemat, “Microwave, ultrasound, thermal treatments, and bead milling as intensification techniques for extraction of lipids from oleaginous Yarrowia lipolytica yeast for a biojetfuel application,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 211, pp. 190–199, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Sahin, A. Topuz, M. Pischetsrieder, and F. Özdemir, “Effect of roasting process on phenolic, antioxidant and browning properties of carob powder,” European Food Research and Technology, vol. 230, no. 1, pp. 155–161, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. Vitali Cepo, A. Mornar, B. Nigović, D. Kremer, D. Radanović, and I. Vedrina Dragojević, “Optimization of roasting conditions as an useful approach for increasing antioxidant activity of carob powder,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 578–586, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. W. Kroh, “Caramelisation in food and beverages,” Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 373–379, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. A. C. Quintas, T. R. S. Brandão, and C. L. M. Silva, “Modelling colour changes during the caramelisation reaction,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 483–491, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. M. Bastos, D. Monaro, and E. Siguemoto, “Maillard Reaction Products in Processed Food: Pros and Cons. Food industrial processes,” in Methods and Equipment, B. Valdez, Ed., 2012. View at Google Scholar
  55. E. K. Bekedam, H. A. Schols, B. Cämmerer, L. W. Kroh, M. A. J. S. Van Boekel, and G. Smit, “Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies on the formation of roasting-induced antioxidative structures in coffee brews at different degrees of roast,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 4597–4604, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. N. Frankel, “Recent advances in lipid oxidation,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 495–511, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Nursten, The Maillard Reaction Chemistry, Biochemistry and Implications, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2005.
  58. M. J. Cantalejo, “Effects of Roasting Temperature on the Aroma Components of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1345–1350, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus