Table 1: Natural food additives used to improve the gel properties of fish-paste products.

Common nameSpeciesCooking methodUsed asFish source for surimiMetricsOptimum amount or treatment conditionReferences

Animal source additives

Beef plasma hydrolysateBos taurusHeated in a water bathDried powderAtlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus),
Alaska pollock
(Theragra chalcogramma)
Moisture content, protein content, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, texture, torsion test0.5%–1.5%[15]
Bovine plasmaBos taurusHeated in a water bathPowderArrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), Walleye pollockMoisture content, punch, torsion, color test2%[16]
Beef plasma proteinBos taurusPowderPacific whiting
(Merluccius productus)
Protein content, inhibitory assay4%[17]
Dried bovine plasmaBos taurusSteamingPowderAlaska pollock
(T. chalcogramma)
Nutrient content, pH, water-holding capacity, texture and sensory evaluation2%[18]
Beef plasma proteinBos taurusHeated in a water bathDried powderRed tilapia
(O. niloticus x O. placidus)
Color, texture, expressible water, protein, total sulfhydryl content2 g/kg[19]
Porcine plasma proteinSus scrofa domesticusHeated in a water bathDried powderBigeye snapper
(Priacanthus tayenus)
Expressible drip amount, color, texture, setting conditions0.5%[14]
Porcine plasma proteinSus scrofa domesticusHeated in a water bathDried powderThreadfin bream (Nemipterus bleekeri),Bigeye snapper
(P. tayenus),
Baracuda
(Sphyraena jello) and
Bigeye croaker
(Pennahia macrophthalmus)
Trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides, color, texture, protein content0.5%[20]
Chicken plasma proteinGallus gallus domesticusHeated in a water bathDried powderSardine
(Sardinella gibbosa)
Color, texture, expressible moisture, protein content, autolysis activity2%[21]
Cysteine proteinase inhibitor from Chicken plasmaGallus gallus domesticusHeated in a water bathDried powderArrowtooth flounder
(A. stomias),Pacific whiting
(M. productus)
Autolysis and inhibitory activity, pH, protein content3%[22]
Chicken plasmaGallus gallus domesticusHeated in a water bathDried powderPacific whiting
(M. productus)
Torsion and fracture test, dynamic rheological attribute2%[23]
OvomucoidGallus gallus domesticusHeated in a water bathOvomucoid solutionAlaska pollockPuncture test, textural and sensory attributes2%[24]
OvomucoidGallus gallus domesticusHeated in a water bathOvomucoid solutionAlaska pollockPuncture test, textural and sensory attributes2%[25]
Egg white (EW)Gallus gallus domesticusHeated in a water bathPowderLizardfish (Saurida tumbil) mince and surimiAutolytic activity, textural attributesEW: 1%[26]
Egg albuminGallus gallus domesticusHeated in the cooking rollerEgg white itselfSurimi-based crab sticks from Alaska pollock (AP),
Pacific whiting (PW);
(M. productus)
Transient test, strength test, texture, dynamic rheological and physical attributesAP: 1.5%,
PW: 2%
[27]
Regular dried egg white (REW), special dried egg white (SEW), liquid egg white (LEW)Gallus gallus domesticusHeated in a water bathSpray-dried powderPacific whiting
(M. productus)
Total sulfhydryl groups, fracture test, dynamic rheological attributeSEW: 2%-3%[28]
Whey protein concentrateBos taurusHeated in a water bathWhey protein concentrateBigeye snapper (P. tayenus),
Goatfish
(Mulloidichthys vanicolensis),
Threadfin bream
(N. bleekeri) and
Lizardfish (S. tumbil)
Water-holding capacity, color, autolytic activity3%[29]

Seafood additives

Shrimp head protein hydrolysate from,
northern pink shrimp,
endeavour shrimp, and
black tiger shrimp
Pandalus eous,
Metapenaeus endeavouri,
Penaeus monodon
Heated in a water bathDried matterLizardfish
(Saurida spp.)
Gel strength, color, gel-forming ability, Ca-ATPase activity5%[30]
Rainbow trout plasma proteinOncorhynchus mykissHeated in a water bathFreeze-dried plasmaAlaska pollockProximate analysis, water-holding capacity, color, texture, protein content0.75 mg/g[31]
Fish gelatinCommercial fish gelatin
(Gelatin Rousselot)
Heated in a water bathPowderAlaska pollockColor, mechanical, functional, sensory attributes10 g/kg[32]
Nanoscaled fish-bone of Pacific whitingM. productusHeated in a water bathPowderAlaska pollockTexture, scanning electron microscopy1 g/100 g[33]
Nanoscaled fish-bone (NFB) +
dried egg white (DEW)
M. productus, Gallus gallus domesticusHeated in a water bathPowderPacific whiting:
(M. productus)
Rheological and textural attributesDEW: 1% +
10 mg NFB Ca/g surimi paste
[34]
Salmon blood plasmaOncorhynchus tshawytschaOhmic heatingFreeze-dried plasmaPacific whiting
(M. productus)
Scanning electron microscopy, protein content, dynamic rheological attributes1 g/100 g[35]
Freeze-dried chinook salmon plasma (FSP) and concentrate salmon plasma (CSP)Oncorhynchus tshawytschaOhmic heatingFreeze-dried plasmaPacific whiting
(M. productus) surimi and Salmon mince
Proteolytic inhibition, autolysis, protein contentSalmon mince: CSP > FSP
Pacific whiting surimi: FSP
[36]
Partially purified trypsin inhibitor from the roe of yellowfin tuna fishThunnus albacaresHeated in a water bathFreeze-driedBigeye snapper
(Priacanthus macracanthus)
Proteolysis, color, water-holding capacity, gelling properties3 g/100 g[37]
Squid ink tyrosinase (SIT) + tannic acid (TA)Todarodes pacificusHeated in a water bathMixtureSardine
(Sardinella albella)
Tyrosinase activity, in vitro oxidation assay, color, textural and sensory attributesSIT: 500 U/g protein +
TA: 1%
[38]

Plant source additives

Soybean protein,
wheat gluten
Glycine max,
Triticum aestivum
Heated in a water bathSoybean protein,
Wheat gluten
Alaska pollock
(T. chalcogramma)
Expressible water, moisture content, gel strength, physical attributes5%[39]
Soy protein,
egg white (EW),
whey protein concentrate (WPC),
Lactalbumin (LA),
milk protein isolate (MPI)
Glycine max,
Gallus gallus domesticus, Bos taurus
Cooked in a steam cookerPowderAlaska Pollock
(T. chalcogramma)
Texture, expressible moisture content, water retention propertiesEW and MPI[40, 41]
Legume seed extract from,
black cowpea,
white cowpea,
soybean seeds,
Mungbean,
peanut
Vigna unguiculata,
Glycine max
Vigna radiata
Arachis hypogaea
Freeze-dried proteinase inhibitor extractsThreadfin bream (Nemipteridae)Thermal stability, pH, protein content, proteinase inhibitory assayBlack cowpea, soybean seeds:
30 mg/g
[42]
Legume seed extract from
Cowpea,
pigeon pea,
bambara groundnuts
Vigna unguiculata,
Cajanus cajan,
Voandzeia subterranea
Partially purified TrypsinThreadfin bream (Nemipteridae)Sarcoplasmic modori-inducing proteinase activity, color30 k units/g[43]
bambara groundnut protein isolateVigna subterraneaHeated in a water bathPowderThreadfin bream
(N. bleekeri)
Color, autolysis0.25 g/100 g[44]
Soy protein isolateGlycine maxHeated in a water bathCommercial soy protein isolate
(JinQui 1200)
Alaska pollock
(T. chalcogramma),
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Total nitrogen and moisture content, gel strength, color10%[45]
Soybean protein,
wheat gluten
Glycine max,
Triticum aestivum
Heated in a water bathSoy protein, wheat glutenAlaska pollock
(T. chalcogramma)
Expressible water, moisture content, gel strength, physical attributes5%[46]
Dietary fiber (DF) from pea and chicory + microbial transglutaminase (MTGase)Cichorium intybus
Pisum sativum
Heated in a water bathPowderHake (M. capensis),
Gilthead seabream
(Sparus aurata),
Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
Meagre (Argyrosomus regius)
Dynamic rheological attributesMTGase: 100 U/g[47]
Protein isolates from Mungbean (MBPI), black bean (BBPI), bambara groundnut (BGPI)Phaseolus aureus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna subterraneaFreeze-dried powderScanning electron microscopy, proteolytic, autolytic and trypsin inhibitory activity assay, color, texture, trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptide content1 g/100 g[48]
Partially purified trypsin inhibitor from adzuki beanVigna angularisHeated in a water bathFreeze-dried powderThreadfin bream (N. bleekeri)Protein content, texture, color, trypsin inhibitory activity, autolytic activity assay3 g/100 g[49]
Amylose (A) and amylopectin (AP)Heated in a water bathPowderWalleye pollock (T. chalcogramma)Gelation and breaking strengthAmylose: 70% + Amylopectin: 4%[50]
Wheat starchTriticum aestivumHeated in a water bathPowderAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Compression test, dynamic viscoelasticity, scanning electron microscopyStarch: 10 g +
Surimi: 10 g
[51]
Native sweet potato starch (NSPS) and Modified sweet potato starch (MSPS)Ipomoea batatasHeated on a controlled stress rheometerPowderAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Dynamic rheological attributes5%[52]
Potato starchSolanum tuberosumHeated in the Krehalone casing filmPowderPacific sand lance (Ammodytes personatus Girard)Proximate analysis, protein composition, color, folding text, textural and sensory attributes8%[53]
Rice flourOryza sativaFriedPowderAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Gel strength, color, rheological and sensory attributes10–15%[54]
Rice flourOryza sativaFriedPowderThreadfin bream (Nemipteridae)Moisture content, pH, color, textural and sensory attributes50%[55]
Rice flourOryza sativaFriedPowderGolden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus)Gel strength, sensory attributes14%[56]

Cryoprotectants and humectants

Xanthan (X), locust bean (LB) gums alone, X/LB ratioCeratonia siliquaHeated in a water bathPowderSilver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)Torsion test, gel-forming ability, mechanical attributesX/LB: 0.25/0.75[57]
Pectin gum (HM, LM) + CaCl2Heated in a water bathGum and powderSilver carp (H. molitrix)Water-holding capacity, mechanical and textural attributesPectin gum: 1% +
CaCl2: 0.2%
[58]
Chitosan 7B from prawn shellNot mentionedHeated in a water bathNot mentionedBarred garfish (Hemiramphus far)Protein content, SEM, textural attributes1%[59]
Konjac glucomannan aqueous dispersionAmorphophallus konjacHeated in a water bathAqueous dispersionGiant squid (Dosidicus gigas), Alaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Protein solubility, pH, textural and viscoelastic rheological attributes1%[60]
Carrageenan + NaCl or KClHeated in a water bathHydrocolloidAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Gel strength, color, compression testCarrageenan: 1% +
KCl: 1.5%
[61]
Amorphophallus konjac flour (AKF)Amorphophallus konjacHeated in a water bathFlourGiant squid (D. gigas)Water retention ability, color, textural and sensory attributes10%[62]
NaCl + high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)Heated in a water bathPowderAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Proximate analysis, FTIR, SEM, color, mechanical, rheological and sensory attributesHHP: 300 MPa +
NaCl: 0.3%
[63]
Sodium chloride, sugars, polyolsHeated in a water bathPowder and liquidYellow corvina (Larimichthys polyactis)Water activity, VBN, color moisture contentSodium chloride: 4%,
Glucose: 10%,
Glycerin: 10%
[64]
Starch, glycine, sodium lactateHeated in a water bathPowder and liquidYellow corvina (L. polyactis)Water activity, VBN, color, moisture contentSodium lactate: 7.5%[65]
GlycerolSteamedLiquidMackerel (Scomber japonicus), and Brazilian sandperch (Pseudopercis semifasciata)Water activity, textural and sensory attributes20%[66]
Na and Ca salts of polyuronides and carboxymethyl celluloseHeated in a water bathPowderAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Gel-strengthening effects2%–6%[67]
L-ascorbic acid (AsA) and dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (DAsA)Heated in a water bathPowderAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Gel strength analysisDAsA: 10 µg/g[68]
Sodium-L-ascorbate (SA)Steamed in Nojax cellulose casingPowderAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)pH, textural and sensory attributes0.2%[69]
ω-3 fatty acids from algaeNot mentionedHeated in a water bathOilCod (Gadus morhua)TBARS, fatty acid content, color500 mg/85 g[70]
Eicosapentaenoic acid,
docosahexaenoic acid
Heated in a water bathOilWalleye pollock (T. chalcogramma)Microscopic observation, viscosity, gel-forming ability10%[71]
Eicosapentaenoic acid,
docosahexaenoic acid
Heated in a water bathOilWalleye pollock (T. chalcogramma), Threadfin bream (Nemipteridae), White croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), and Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus)Proximate analysis, color, water-holding capacity, physical attributes5%–30%[72]
ω-3 PUFAs-rich oilsFlaxseed, algae, menhaden, krill, blend (flaxseed : algae : krill, 8 : 1 : 1).Heated in a water bathOilAlaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Torsion test, and rheological attributes9 g/100 g[73]
Ethanolic Kiam wood extract (EKWE) + commercial tannin (CT)Hopea sp.Heated in a water bathOverdried powderStriped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus)pH, VBN, TBARS, color, TCA-soluble peptide, moisture, protein contents, textural attributesEKWE: 0.08%
CT: 0.02%–0.04%
[74]
Coconut husk extract with ethanol,
60% (CHE-E60),
80% (CHE-E80)
Cocos nuciferaHeated in a water bathFreeze-dried powderSardine
(S. albella)
Total phenolic, expressible moisture, TCA-soluble peptide, and protein contents, color, textual, rheological, and sensory attributesCHE-E60: 0.125%[75]
Oxidized phenolic compounds:
ferulic acid (OFA),
tannic acid (OTA),
catechin (OCT),
caffeic acid (OCF)
Heated in a water bath in polyvinylidene casingSolutionMackerel
(Rastrelliger kanagurta)
SEM, expressible moisture, protein content, color, textural and sensory attributesOFA: 0.40%,
OTA: 0.50%,
OCF: 0.50%,
OCT: 0.10%
[76]
Oxidized phenolic compounds:
ferulic acid (OFA),
tannic acid (OTA),
catechin (OCT),
caffeic acid (OCF)
Heated in a water bath in polyvinylidene casingPowderBigeye snapper
(P. tayenus)
SEM, expressible moisture, protein, and free amino acid content, color, textural and sensory attributesOFA: 0.20%,
OTA: 0.05%,
OCF: 0.15%,
OCT: 0.05%
[77]
Egg white powder (EW), whey protein concentrate (WPC)Gallus gallus domesticus, Triticum aestivumHeated in a water bathPowder and concentrateLizardfish
(S. tumbil) mince and surimi
Autolytic activity, TCA-soluble oligopeptides, protein content, textural attributesEW: 4%
WPC: 4%
[26]
Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)Heated in a water bath in polyvinylidene casingPowderYellow stripe trevally (Selaroides leptolepis)Expressible moisture, lipid, phospholipid, and protein content, Ca-ATPase activity, color, textural attributesZnSO4: 60 µmol/kg + STPP: 0.5%[78]

SEM: scanning electron microscopy; FTIR: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; VBN: volatile basic nitrogen; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TCA: trichloroacetic acid.