Table 2: Natural food additives used to improve the functional properties of fish-paste products.

Common nameSpeciesCooking methodUsed asFish source for surimiMetricsOptimum amount or treatment conditionReferences

Seafood additives

AnchovyEngraulis japonicusFriedDried powderSea breamCalcium content, color, textural and sensory attributes1%-2%[79]
AnchovyEngraulis japonicusFriedDried powderSea breamCalcium content, color, textural and sensory attributes5%[80]
SkateRaja kenojeiFriedHot wind-dried skin and cartilage (6 : 4) powderSea breamMoisture content, color, textural and sensory attributes3%[81]
SkateRaja kenojeiSteamedFermented fleshNemipterus virgatusAmino acid, and moisture content, color, textural and sensory attributes20%[82]
Warty sea squirtStyela clavaFriedGround fleshHimeji
(Frozen yellow tentacle)
Color, textural and sensory attributes5%[83]
Warty sea squirtStyela clavaFriedFreeze-dried tunic powderFrozen ItoyoriColor, textural and sensory attributes1%[84]
Pleated sea squirtStyela plicataFriedGrinded fleshHimeji
(Frozen yellow tentacle)
Color, textural and sensory attributes15%[85]
ShrimpAcetes japonicusFriedPowderFrozen sea bream surimiMoisture content, color, textural and sensory attributes5%[86]
Green laverUlva spp.FriedPowderFrozen sea bream surimiColor, sensory attributes5%[87]
PufferfishLagocephalus lunarisFriedPowderNemipterus spp.Moisture, crude protein, lipid, color, textural and sensory attributes5%[88]
MaesaengiCapsosiphon fulvescensFriedFreeze-dried powderFrozen sea bream surimiColor, textural and sensory attributes5%[89]
Red snow crabChionoecetes japonicusFriedLeg-meat powderFrozen Alaska pollock (T. chalcogramma)Physiochemical and sensory attributes6%[90]

Plant source additives

Mulberry leafMorus albaFriedPowderSea breamColor, texture, sensory attributes0.5%[91]
OnionAllium cepaFriedEthanol extractCutlassfish pasteMoisture content, TBC, VBN, color, sensory attributes3%[70]
Lotus leafNelumbo nuciferaFriedPowderSea breamColor, textural and sensory attributes0.5%[92]
Beetroot and SpinachBeta vulgaris and Spinacia oleraceaMicrowave in kamaboko shape moldFresh beet root, spinach dishNot mentionedMoisture, texture analysisBeetroot: 10%
Spinach: 15%
[93]
Citrus fruitsCitrus limon, C. junos, C. unshiu, Fortunella japonica var. margaritaSteamedGround flesh pulp without seedsMin Daegu fleshColor, textural and sensory attributesCumquat[94]
Oat bran + SiO2Avena sativaBoiledPowderFrozen Alaska pollock surimiColor, textural and physiochemical attributes6 g Oat bran/100 g SiO2[95]
YamDioscorea japonicaFriedPowderPollock, squid, shrimpFolding test, color, textural and sensory attributes2%[96]
Wolfberry/Chinese GojiFructus lyciiFriedPowderSea breamTextural and sensory attributes3%[97]
Red ginsengPanax ginseng C.A. MeyerFriedPowderNot describedColor, lipid oxidation, sensory attributes1%[98]
Korean angelica rootAngelicae gigantis RadixFriedPowderSea breamTextural and sensory attributes0.5%[99]
TurmericCurcuma longa L.FriedPowderPollock, squid, shrimpColor, rheological and sensory attributes3%[100]
WasabiWasabia japonicaFriedFreeze-dried powderSilver pomfret
(Pampus argenteus)
Color, TBC, viable cell count, textural and sensory attributes1.8%[101]
Wolfiporia extensaPoria cocosFriedPowderSea breamColor, textural and sensory attributes3%[102]

Mushroom additives

Button mushroomAgaricus bisporusFriedChopped freshArgyrosomus argentatusTextural and sensory attributes10%[103]
Enoki mushroomFlammulina velutipesFriedChopped freshA. argentatusTextural and sensory attributes5%[104]
Shiitake mushroomLentinus edodesFriedChopped freshA. argentatusTextural and sensory attributes10%[105]
King oyster mushroomPleurotus eryngiiFriedPasteSilver white croaker (Pennahia argentata)Textural and sensory attributes10%[106]
King oyster mushroomPleurotus eryngiiSteamedPasteCuttlefish
(Sepia esculenta)
Textural, physiochemical, sensory attributes40%[107]

Animal source additives

Poultry chickenGallus gallus domesticusFriedBreast meat batterItoyori;
Japanese threadfin bream, (Nemipterus japonicus)
Chemical composition, color, fatty acid composition, TBARS, sensory attributes7.46% or 14.93%[108]

Functional food additives

Long-chain celluloseBoiledPowdered celluloseAlaska pollock surimiTextural and rheological attributes6%[109]
Dietary fiber from ascidian tunicHalocynthia roretziBoiledRefined dietary fiberAlaska pollock surimiColor, textural, physiological, and sensory attributes5%[110]
Fiber and/ω-3 oilHeated in a water bathPowdered fiber, ω-3 oilAlaska pollock surimiTextural and rheological attributesFiber: 6–10 g and/ω-3: 100 g[111]
Flaxseed or salmon oilNot describedCooked in a water bathOilFrozen Alaska pollock surimi
(T. chalcogramma)
TBARS, color, textural and sensory attributes2 g/100 g franks[112]
Soybean oilGlycine maxHeated in a water bathOilFrozen silver carp surimiColor, textural attributesSoybean oil: >3%[113]
Calcium powder of cuttlefish bone treated with acetic acidSepia esculentaHeating in a water bathCalcium powderAlaska pollock surimiMoisture content, color, textural and sensory attributes0.09%[114]
PropolisFriedAlcohol extract
(100%)
Alaska pollock meat pasteColor, textural and sensory attributes0.17%[115]
PropolisFriedAlcohol extract
(100%)
Sand lance
(Hypoptychus dybowskii)
Acid and peroxide value, VBN, sensory attributes0.2%[116]
CheonggukjangFermented Glycine max by Bacillus sp.FriedPowderSea breamColor, textural and sensory attributes2%[117]

TBC: total bacterial count; VBN: volatile basic nitrogen; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.