Table 3: Natural food additives and physicochemical methods used to improve the shelf-life of fish-paste products.

Common nameSpeciesCooking methodUsed asFish source for surimiMetricsOptimum amount or treatment conditionReferences

Physical and chemical methods

High hydrostatic pressureHigh-pressure treatment or heat treatment in sample tube with vacuum packagingFrozen Alaska pollockMicrobial activity400 MPa[118]
High hydrostatic pressureNot cookedTuna fish paste,
Mackerel paste with paprika, mackerel paste with garlic, mackerel paste alone, and salmon paste
Microbial activity200 MPa[119]
Co-60 Gamma raysGrilledCommercially available fish meat paste productsTBC, textural, sensory, microbial, physiochemical attributes7.5 kGy[120]
Co-60 Gamma raysFriedCommercially available fish meat paste productsTBC, pH, textural, microbial, physiochemical attributes3 kGy[121]
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)SteamedCommercially available fish meat paste productsVBN, TBARS, pH, microbial, physicochemical, sensory attributes50 ppm[122]

Natural food additives

Red pepper ethanol extract (RPEE) and/chopped fresh red pepper (CFRP)Capsicum annuumFriedEthanol extract and chopped fresh oneFrozen Alaska pollockTBC, sensory attributesRPEE: 10%,
CFRP: 5%
[123]
Ethanol extract (EE), and water extract (WE)Phellodendron amurense,
Eugenia caryophyllus,
Pinus rigida,
Bletilla striata, and Paeonia albiflora
Antimicrobial attributes on putrefactive isolates from fish meat paste productsEE: 2,000 ppm[124]
Egg white lysozyme (EWL) and/or sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium pyrophosphate (SPP)Gallus gallus domesticusFriedPowderFrozen Alaska pollockViable cell count, pH, VBN, biochemical attributesEWL: 5% +
SPP: 0.5% +
SHMP: 0.1%
[125]
Grapefruit seed extractCitrus paradisiSolutionCommercially available fish meat paste productsProximate composition, textural, biochemical, rheological, sensory attributes1,000 ppm[126]
Cinnamon bark extractCinnamomum cassiaFriedExtracted solutionFrozen Alaska pollockAntimicrobial activitySprayed diluted extract (1 : 1)[127]
Alginic acid hydrolysateBoiledHydrolysate solutionFrozen Alaska pollockRelative viscosity, pH, color, rheological attributes0.3%[128]
Chitosan hydrolysateBoiledHydrolysate solutionFrozen Alaska pollockViable cell counts, rheological, sensory attributes0.3%[129]
Nisin (N) and/or sucrose fatty acid esters (SFE)SteamedPowder and solutionFrozen Alaska pollockViable cell count, antimicrobial activityN: 12.5 µg/g +
SFE:10 m/g
[130]
Piscicolin KH1Carnobacterium maltalomaticumSteamedSolutionCod fishInhibitory assay, protein content, antimicrobial activity50 AU/g.[131]
Zein and soy protein isolate (SPI) films containing green tea extract (GTE)Zea mays
Glycine max
Camellia sinensis
FriedEdible film (GC-WPI) with GTECommercially available fish meat paste productsTBARS, color, microbial, physical attributesGTE: 1%[132]
Gelidium corneum (GC)-Whey protein isolate (GC-WPI) blend film containing grapefruit seed extract (GSE)Gelidium corneum Citrus paradisi Bos taurusNot mentionedEdible film (GC-WPI) with GSECommercially available fish meat paste productsWater vapor permeability, microbiological analysis, sensory attributesGSE: 0.1%[133]

TBC: total bacterial count; VBN: volatile basic nitrogen; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.