Table of Contents
Journal of Fuels
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 748679, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/748679
Research Article

n-Hexadecane Fuel for a Phosphoric Acid Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell

1Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5
2Catalysis Centre for Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5
3Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE
4EnPross Incorporated, 147 Banning Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K2L 1C5

Received 8 January 2015; Accepted 17 March 2015

Academic Editor: Michele Gambino

Copyright © 2015 Yuanchen Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. A. A. Ketelaar, “History,” in Fuel Cell Systems, L. J. M. J. Blomen and M. N. Mugerwa, Eds., p. 20, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  2. E. J. Cairns, “Anodic oxidation of hydrocarbons and the hydrocarbon fuel cell,” Advances in Electrochemistry Science and Electrochemical Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 337–392, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. O. M. Bockris and S. Srinivasan, “Electrochemical combustion of organic substances,” in Fuel Cells: Their Electrochemistry, pp. 357–411, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  4. H. A. Liebhafsky and E. J. Cairns, “The direct hydrocarbon fuel cell with aqueous electrolytes,” in Fuel Cells and Fuel Batteries, pp. 458–523, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Bertholet, Oxydation Electrocatalytique du Methane [Ph.D. Dissertation], Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France, 1998.
  6. C. K. Cheng, J. L. Luo, K. T. Chuang, and A. R. Sanger, “Propane fuel cells using phosphoric-acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 26, pp. 13036–13042, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. O. Savadogo and F. J. Rodriguez Varela, “Low-temperature direct propane polymer electrolyte membranes fuel cell,” Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 93–97, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. J. Rodríguez Varela and O. Savadogo, “Real-time mass spectrometric analysis of the anode exhaust gases of a direct propane fuel cell,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 152, no. 9, pp. A1755–A1762, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Heo, K. Ito, A. Tomita, and T. Hibino, “A proton-conducting fuel cell operating with hydrocarbon fuels,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 47, no. 41, pp. 7841–7844, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. C. H. Steele, I. Kelly, H. Middleton, and R. Rudkin, “Oxidation of methane in solid state electrochemical reactors,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 28–30, no. 2, pp. 1547–1552, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. P. Murray, T. Tsai, and S. A. Barnett, “A direct-methane fuel cell with a ceria-based anode,” Nature, vol. 400, no. 6745, pp. 649–651, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Zhu, C. Xia, J. Fan, R. Peng, and G. Meng, “Ceria coated Ni as anodes for direct utilization of methane in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 897–902, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. D. Gross, J. M. Vohs, and R. J. Gorte, “Recent progress in SOFC anodes for direct utilization of hydrocarbons,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 30, pp. 3071–3077, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. G. Lee, C. M. Lee, M. Park, and Y. G. Shul, “Direct methane fuel cell with La2Sn2O7–Ni–Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 anode and electrospun La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ–Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95 cathode,” Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, vol. 3, no. 29, pp. 11816–11822, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Li, and C. Xia, “An octane-fueled low temperature solid oxide fuel cell with Ru-free anodes,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1295–1298, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Kishimoto, K. Yamaji, T. Horita et al., “Feasibility of liquid hydrocarbon fuels for SOFC with Ni-ScSZ anode,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 67–71, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Z. F. Zhou, C. Gallo, M. B. Pague, H. Schobert, and S. N. Lvov, “Direct oxidation of jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil in a solid oxide fuel cell,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 181–187, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Psofogiannakis, Y. Bourgault, B. E. Conway, and M. Ternan, “Mathematical model for a direct propane phosphoric acid fuel cell,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 115–130, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Khakdaman, Y. Bourgault, and M. Ternan, “Computational modeling of a direct propane fuel cell,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 6, pp. 3186–3194, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. R. Khakdaman, Y. Bourgault, and M. Ternan, “Direct propane fuel cell anode with interdigitated flow fields: two-dimensional model,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 1079–1085, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Psofogiannakis, A. St-Amant, and M. Ternan, “Ab-initio DFT study of methane electro-oxidation mechanism on platinum,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, pp. 24593–24605, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  22. S. Vafaeyan, A. St-Amant, and M. Ternan, “Nickel alloy catalysts for the anode of a high temperature PEM direct propane fuel cell,” Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2014, Article ID 151638, 8 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Vafaeyan, A. St-Amant, and M. Ternan, “Propane fuel cells: selectivity for partial or complete reaction,” Journal of Fuels, vol. 2014, Article ID 485045, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Al-Othman, A. Y. Tremblay, W. Pell et al., “A modified silicic acid (Si) and sulphuric acid (S)-ZrP/PTFE/glycerol composite membrane for high temperature direct hydrocarbon fuel cells,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 224, pp. 158–167, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Al-Othman, A. Y. Tremblay, W. Pell, Y. Liu, B. A. Peppley, and M. Ternan, “The effect of glycerol on the conductivity of Nafion-free ZrP/PTFE composite membrane electrolytes for direct hydrocarbon fuel cells,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 199, pp. 14–21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Al-Othman, A. Y. Tremblay, W. Pell et al., “Zirconium phosphate as the proton conducting material in direct hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells operating above the boiling point of water,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 195, no. 9, pp. 2520–2525, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. G. Farrell, C. L. Gardner, and M. Ternan, “Experimental and modelling studies of CO poisoning in PEM fuel cells,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 282–293, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Fonocho, C. L. Gardner, and M. Ternan, “A study of the electrochemical hydrogenation of o-xylene in a PEM hydrogenation reactor,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 75, pp. 171–178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Sammes, R. Bove, and K. Stahl, “Phosphoric acid fuel cells: fundamentals and applications,” Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 372–378, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. M. King and H. R. Kunz, “Phosphoric acid electrolyte fuel cells,” in Handbook of Fuel Cells, W. Vielstich, A. Lamm, H. A. Gasteiger, and H. Yokokawa, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 287–300, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  31. S. R. Choudhury, “Phosphoric acid fuel cell technology,” in Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology, S. Basu, Ed., pp. 188–216, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  32. W. Grubb and C. J. Michalske, “A high performance propane fuel cell operating in the temperature range of 150°–200°C,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 111, no. 9, p. 1015, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. H. A. Liebhafsky and W. T. Grubb, “Normal alkanes at platinum anodes,” Fuel Preprints, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 134, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  34. V. S. Bagotzky, Y. B. Vassiliev, and O. A. Khazova, “Generalized scheme of chemisorption, electrooxidation and electroreduction of simple organic compounds on platinum group metals,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 229–238, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. F. Fuller, F. J. Luczak, and D. J. Wheeler, “Electrocatalyst utilization in phosphoric acid fuel cells,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 1752–1757, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. H. Okrent and C. E. Heath, “A liquid hydrocarbon fuel cell battery,” in Fuel Cell Systems, B. Baker, Ed., Advances in Chemistry, pp. 328–340, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  37. H. A. Liebhafsky and E. J. Cairns, “The direct hydrocarbon fuel cell with aqueous electrolytes,” in Fuel Cells and Fuel Batteries, pp. 485–510, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  38. H. Kim, S. Park, J. M. Vohs, and R. J. Gorte, “Direct oxidation of liquid fuels in a solid oxide fuel cell,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 148, no. 7, pp. A693–A695, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Islam and J. M. Hill, “Barium oxide promoted Ni/YSZ solid-oxide fuel cells for direct utilization of methane,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1922–1929, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Yang, J. Li, Y. Lin, J. Liu, F. Chen, and M. Liu, “In-situ fabrication of CoFe allot nanoparticles structure (Pr0.4Sr0.6)3 (Fe0.85Nb0.15)O7 ceramic anode for direct hydrocarbon solid oxde fuel cells,” Nano Energy, vol. 11, pp. 704–711, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  41. S. McIntosh and R. J. Gorte, “Direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 104, no. 10, pp. 4845–4865, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Zhao, C. Xia, L. Jia et al., “Recent progress on solid oxide fuel cell: lowering temperature and utilizing non-hydrogen fuels,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, no. 36, pp. 16498–16517, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Srinivasan, Fuel Cells: From Fundamentals to Applications, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  44. M. R. Walluk, J. Lin, M. G. Waller, D. F. Smith, and T. A. Trabold, “Diesel auto-thermal reforming for solid oxide fuel cell systems: anode off-gas recycle simulation,” Applied Energy, vol. 130, pp. 94–102, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar