Table of Contents
Journal of Geochemistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 145425, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/145425
Research Article

Nature of C-(A)-S-H Phases Formed in the Reaction Bentonite/Portlandite

Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Autonomous University of Madrid, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain

Received 30 September 2014; Accepted 3 December 2014; Published 18 December 2014

Academic Editor: Miguel A. Huerta-Diaz

Copyright © 2014 Raúl Fernández et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Fernández, J. Cuevas, L. Sánchez, R. V. de la Villa, and S. Leguey, “Reactivity of the cement-bentonite interface with alkaline solutions using transport cells,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 977–992, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Dolder, U. Mäder, A. Jenni, and N. Schwendener, “Experimental characterization of cement-bentonite interaction using core infiltration techniques and 4D computed tomography,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Parts A/B/C, vol. 70-71, pp. 104–113, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Ramírez, J. Cuevas, R. Vigil, and S. Leguey, “Hydrothermal alteration of “La Serrata” bentonite (Almeria, Spain) by alkaline solutions,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 21, no. 5-6, pp. 257–269, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Sánchez, J. Cuevas, S. Ramírez et al., “Reaction kinetics of FEBEX bentonite in hyperalkaline conditions resembling the cement-bentonite interface,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 125–141, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Savage, D. Noy, and M. Mihara, “Modelling the interaction of bentonite with hyperalkaline fluids,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 207–223, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Watson, K. Hane, D. Savage, S. Benbow, J. Cuevas, and R. Fernandez, “Reaction and diffusion of cementitious water in bentonite: results of “blind” modelling,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 45, no. 1-2, pp. 54–69, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. C. Gaucher, P. Blanc, J.-M. Matray, and N. Michau, “Modeling diffusion of an alkaline plume in a clay barrier,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1505–1515, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Bauer and G. Berger, “Kaolinite and smectite dissolution rate in high molar KOH solutions at 35°and 80°C,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 905–916, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Rassineux, L. Griffault, A. Meunier et al., “Expandability-layer stacking relationship during experimental alteration of a Wyoming bentonite in pH 13.5 solutions at 35 and 60°C,” Clay Minerals, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 197–210, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Cuevas, R. V. de la Villa, S. Ramírez, L. Sánchez, R. Fernández, and S. Leguey, “The alkaline reaction of FEBEX bentonite: a contribution to the study of the performance of bentonite/concrete engineered barrier systems,” Journal of Iberian Geology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 151–174, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. Ramirez, D. Righi, and S. Petit, “Alteration of smectites induced by hydrolytic exchange,” Clay Minerals, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 15–24, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Read, F. P. Glasser, C. Ayora, M. T. Guardiola, and A. Sneyers, “Mineralogical and microstructural changes accompanying the interaction of Boom Clay with ordinary Portland cement,” Advances in Cement Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 175–183, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. A. Chermak, “Low temperature experimental investigation of the effect of high pH KOH solutions on the Opalinus Shale, Switzerland,” Clays and Clay Mineral, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 365–372, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Savage, K. Bateman, P. Hill et al., “Rate and mechanism of the reaction of silicates with cement pore fluids,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 7, no. 1–3, pp. 33–45, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Savage, C. Walker, R. Arthur, C. Rochelle, C. Oda, and H. Takase, “Alteration of bentonite by hyperalkaline fluids: a review of the role of secondary minerals,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Parts A/B/C, vol. 32, no. 1–7, pp. 287–297, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. F. W. Taylor, “Nanostructure of C-S-H: current status,” Advanced Cement Based Materials, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 38–46, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. A. Kulik, “Improving the structural consistency of C-S-H solid solution thermodynamic models,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 477–495, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. D. Jackson, S. R. Chae, S. R. Mulcahy et al., “Unlocking the secrets of Al-tobermorite in Roman seawater concrete,” American Mineralogist, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 1669–1687, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Komarneni, E. Breval, M. Miyake, and R. Roy, “Cation-exchange properties of (Al + Na)-substituted synthetic tobermorites,” Clays and Clay Minerals, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 385–390, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. R. M. Brew and F. P. Glasser, “Synthesis and characterisation of magnesium silicate hydrate gels,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 85–98, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. S. Hodgkinson and C. R. Hughes, “The mineralogy and geochemistry of cement/rock reactions: high-resolution studies of experimental and analogue materials,” Geological Society, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 195–211, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. C. Gaucher and P. Blanc, “Cement/clay interactions—a review: experiments, natural analogues, and modeling,” Waste Management, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 776–788, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Savage, J. M. Soler, K. Yamaguchi et al., “A comparative study of the modelling of cement hydration and cement-rock laboratory experiments,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1138–1152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Caballero, C. J. de Cisneros, F. J. Huertas, A. Pozzuoli, and J. Linares, “Bentonites from Cabo de Gata, Almería Spain: a mineralogical and geochemical overview,” Clay Minerals, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 463–480, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. M. Fernández, B. Baeyens, M. Bradbury, and P. Rivas, “Analysis of the porewater chemical composition of a Spanish compacted bentonite used in an engineered barrier,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 105–118, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Savage, C. Walker, and S. Benbow, “An analysis of potential changes to barrier components due to interaction with a concrete liner in a repository for SF/HLW in Opalinus Clay,” NAB 10-17, Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. R. Glenn, “X-ray studies of lime-bentonite reaction products,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 312–316, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  28. I. G. Richardson, “The calcium silicate hydrates,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 137–158, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. I. G. Richardson, “Nature of C-S-H in hardened cements,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1131–1147, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Matschei, B. Lothenbach, and F. P. Glasser, “The AFm phase in Portland cement,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 118–130, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Henmi and I. Kusachi, “Clinotobermorite, Ca5Si6(O,OH)18·5H2O, a new mineral from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan,” Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 56, pp. 353–358, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Merlino, E. Bonaccorsi, and T. Armbruster, “Tobermorites: their real structure and order-disorder (OD) character,” The American Mineralogist, vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 1613–1621, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Kaufhold and R. Dohrmann, “Stability of bentonites in salt solutions III—calcium hydroxide,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 300–307, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Mantovani, A. Escudero, M. D. Alba, and A. I. Becerro, “Stability of phyllosilicates in Ca(OH)2 solution: influence of layer nature, octahedral occupation, presence of tetrahedral Al and degree of crystallinity,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1251–1260, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. Pardal, I. Pochard, and A. Nonat, “Experimental study of Si–Al substitution in calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) prepared under equilibrium conditions,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 637–643, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. K. Sun, J. F. Young, and R. J. Kirkpatrick, “The role of Al in C-S-H: NMR, XRD, and compositional results for precipitated samples,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 18–29, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus