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Journal of GeoEnergy disseminates cutting-edge research and recent advances related to fossil fuels, geological energy and new energy, combining theory with practice, with a focus on engineering applications. It promotes the progress of engineering technology with theoretical research achievements.
Chief Editor Professor Bo Liu is Chair of the Unconventional Oil and Gas Institute and Deputy Director of the Key Laboratory of Continental Shale Hydrocarbon Accumulation and Efficient Development, Ministry of Education.
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Latest ArticlesMore articles
Estimating Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Content and Porosity of the Ranikot Formation in the Central Indus Basin, Pakistan, Using Seismic Inversion and Well Log Analysis
An approach is proposed to improve modeling for shale gas reservoirs, integrating key parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC) and porosity. Seismic inversion uses seismic reflection data and well-log information to improve geological and geophysical interpretation and estimate rock properties with high-resolution subsurface acoustic impedance, including low and high frequencies. The Ranikot Formation in the Central Indus Basin, Pakistan, is a Paleocene-age formation with the potential to act as reservoir, seal, and source rock. The porosity of the Lower Ranikot reservoir in the Mehar Block was calculated using seismic inversion analysis with the Mehar-02 well. The petrophysical analysis yielded an effective porosity of 5.8%. Similarly, when calculated using seismic inversion, the porosity fell within the 5.5%–6.0% range. Determining the TOC content is crucial in evaluating unconventional shale resources. Petrophysical approaches, such as the ΔlogR method, offer a fast, convenient, and cost-effective means of estimating TOC from well logs. This method is commonly used in conventional source rock evaluation and applied to unconventional resource play evaluation. On the other hand, seismic inversion techniques were used to conduct TOC analysis in the absence of core data in order to estimate the source potential of the Upper Ranikot Formation. To estimate the TOC log for the Upper Ranikot shales in the Mehar Block, the Passey equation was used on the well logs of the Mehar-02 well. The estimated TOC for the Upper Ranikot shales is around 2.0%, which falls within the fair TOC range.
Evaluation of High-Temperature Recrosslinkable Preformed Particle Gel for Fluid Loss Control during Drilling
Lost circulation has become one of the biggest challenges that drilling engineering faces during drilling, especially at high-temperature reservoirs. The consequences of lost circulation can vary from an economic aspect as well as a safety aspect. In this paper, the capability of a novel high-temperature recrosslinkable preformed particle gel (HT-RPPG) is evaluated to see whether it can be better used to control severe and total losses. The HT-RPPG is injected in the form of dispersed swellable gel particles, but it can self-crosslink to form a strong bulk gel after being placed in target zones. The sealing pressure and plugging efficiency of the HT-RPPG were evaluated utilizing a core flooding test. Various impacting factors were investigated, including the swelling ratios, fracture widths, and bentonite concentrations. Results indicated that HT-RPPG is an excellent material that can be used to control the severe loss of drilling fluids in fractured reservoirs with temperatures up to 130°C. The recrosslinked RPPG could withstand pressure up to 1,077 psi/ft for fractures up to 2 mm, and permeability was reduced more than 107 times.
Hydrogeological Challenge for Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Production in Structurally Complex Reservoirs: Case Study for the Synclines of Umbita and Checua-Lenguazaque, Colombia
Colombia is advancing toward pilot production of coal bed methane (CBM) at the Umbita syncline (US) and Checua-Lenguazaque syncline (CLS) in the Cundiboyacense plateau of the Eastern Cordillera. Although attractive, the development of CBM resources remains hydrogeologically challenging due to infinite acting aquifer (IAA) conditions, a sustainable production of ineffective water, which removal is critical to achieve methane desorption. Here, we assessed the implications of IAA on methane production prior to pilot development by comparing single-phase flow numerical simulations of the prospects. The results suggest IAA would extend the dewatering period in the Umbita syncline up to 20 years to potentially compromise the commercial recovery of methane. The Chequa-Lenguasaque, on the other hand, appears to have reached the phase of production of effective water; therefore, it is deemed as the most attractive prospect for pilot testing the production of CBM in Colombia.
Technical Performance Comparison of Horizontal and Vertical Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems
The configurations of ground heat exchangers (GHEs) play a significant role in the efficiency and sustainability of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems. However, there is a knowledge gap in understanding the performance differences between the horizontal and vertical GSHP systems in the same project under various heating and cooling demands. In this study, a technical performance comparison between GSHP systems coupled with horizontal ground loops and vertical boreholes under three scenarios of heating-to-cooling ratios (6 : 1, 2.4 : 1, and 1 : 1) was conducted. The simulations were based on a coupled thermal–hydraulic model for unsaturated soils that takes into account realistic ground surface boundary, GHE boundary, and the dynamics of heat pump efficiency. The GHEs were designed based on an experimental site located on the campus of a UK university. Results showed significant differences in the development of fluid temperatures and coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pumps between the horizontal and vertical GSHP systems due to the differences in the soil profiles and temperature boundaries. Both the fluid temperatures and heat pump COPs in the horizontal GSHP system reached a steady annual cycle after 2 years regardless of the heating-to-cooling ratios. For the vertical system, a general downward trend in the fluid temperatures and the COP of the heat pump in the heating mode can be found when a heating-to-cooling ratio was 6 : 1 or 2.4 : 1, while an overall upward trend in the fluid temperatures and the COP of the heat pump in the heating mode can be noted in the case of 1 : 1 heating-to-cooling ratio. Additionally, the heat pump operating in the cooling mode was off most of the time when a heating-to-cooling ratio was 6 : 1 or 2.4 : 1, while a declining trend in the COP of the heat pump in the cooling mode was exhibited in the case of a heating-to-cooling ratio of 1 : 1. The technical comparison reveals that the heating-to-cooling ratios would significantly affect the efficiency and sustainability of both GSHP systems.
Effects of Reservoir Boundary Conditions, Drainage Shape, and Well Location on Productivity of a Vertical Well
This paper gives a review of steady state and pseudosteady state productivity equations for an unfractured fully penetrating vertical well in a permeability anisotropic reservoir. This paper also studies the effects of drainage area, reservoir boundary conditions, drainage shape, and well location on productivity. The production performances of an unfractured vertical well in a circular reservoir, a sector fault reservoir and a rectangular reservoir are studied and compared. Mechanical skin factor is included in the productivity equations. This paper examines the steady state and pseudosteady state production performance of oil wells with constant flow rates in different drainage shapes, a library of productivity equations is introduced, several combinations of closed and/or constant pressure boundary conditions are considered at lateral reservoir boundaries. The equations introduced in this paper can be used to determine the economical feasibility of a drilling an unfractured fully penetrating vertical well. It is concluded that, drainage area and reservoir boundary conditions have significant effects on productivity of a well, and productivity is a weak function of drainage shape and well location.
Gas Production Potential in Geothermal-Energy-Enhanced CH4–CO2 Swapping Processes
Carbon capture and storage has become a practice to reduce the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) on the global climate. Recent studies have generated increasing concerns about CO2 leakage from underground structures. This has called for more research on CH4–CO2 swapping in natural gas hydrate (NGH) reservoirs to lock CO2 in a solid state in underground structures. Because the CH4–CO2 swapping is too slow to be efficient, this study proposes to use geothermal energy to accelerate the process. This paper presents a technical feasibility analysis of using geothermal energy to assist CH4–CO2 swapping for simultaneously storing CO2 in NGH reservoirs and producing the dissociated natural gas. Mathematical models were developed to compute heat transfer from geothermal zones to NGH reservoirs. A case study was carried out using the data from an NGH reservoir in the Shenhu area, Northern South China Sea. The result of the case study indicates that heat conduction dictates the heat transfer process when the heat convection flow rate is less than 0.01 m3/s over a heat-releasing borehole length of 2,000 m. Heat convection can significantly accelerate the heat transfer inside the gas hydrate reservoir. The 15°C (designed gas hydrate dissociation temperature in the studied case) heat front will propagate to the upper and lower boundaries of the gas hydrate reservoir (39 ft or 12 m) in 220 days by heat conduction only. This time can be shortened to 140 days with the aid of a fluid convection rate of 0.005 m3/s. Geothermal heating can significantly increase the initial productivity of wells in heated gas hydrate reservoirs in CO2 swapping processes. When the gas hydrate reservoir is heated from 6 to 16°C, the fold of increase is expected to exceed five in the studied case. This study shows that CH4–CO2 swapping process using geothermal stimulation is a promising method for producing natural gas and locking CO2 permanently in NGH reservoirs. Further studies should first focus on investigations of the effect of CO2-hydrate formation on the CO2 mass transfer inside reservoirs.