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Journal of Geological Research
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 309638, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/309638
Research Article

Fluoride in the Serra Geral Aquifer System: Source Evaluation Using Stable Isotopes and Principal Component Analysis

1Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88.010-970 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
2Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9500, prédio 43126/103, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
3Centro de Pesquisas Geocronológicas (CPGeo), Instituto de Geociências (USP), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Rua do Lago 562, Cidade Universitária, 05508-080 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
4Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, UDESC-FAED, 88.035-001 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

Received 30 January 2013; Revised 25 April 2013; Accepted 29 April 2013

Academic Editor: Umberta Tinivella

Copyright © 2013 Arthur Schmidt Nanni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Groundwater with anomalous fluoride content and water mixture patterns were studied in the fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, a basaltic to rhyolitic geological unit, using a principal component analysis interpretation of groundwater chemical data from 309 deep wells distributed in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. A four-component model that explains 81% of the total variance in the Principal Component Analysis is suggested. Six hydrochemical groups were identified. δ18O and δ2H were analyzed in 28 Serra Geral Aquifer System samples in order to identify stable isotopes patterns and make comparisons with data from the Guarani Aquifer System and meteoric waters. The results demonstrated a complex water mixture between the Serra Geral Aquifer System and the Guarani Aquifer System, with meteoric recharge and ascending water infiltration through an intensive tectonic fracturing.