Table of Contents
Journal of Gravity
Volume 2013, Article ID 617142, 3 pages
Research Article

Nonsingular Einsteinian Cosmology: How Galactic Momentum Prevents Cosmic Singularities

6400 N. Sheridan No. 2604, Chicago, IL 60626-5331, USA

Received 5 June 2013; Accepted 27 June 2013

Academic Editor: Sergei Odintsov

Copyright © 2013 Kenneth J. Epstein. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


It is shown how Einstein's equation can account for the evolution of the universe without an initial singularity and can explain the inflation epoch as a momentum dominated era in which energy from matter and radiation drove extremely accelerated expansion of space. It is shown how an object with momentum loses energy to the expanding universe and how this energy can contribute to accelerated spatial expansion more effectively than vacuum energy, because virtual particles, the source of vacuum energy, can have negative energy, which can cancel any positive energy from the vacuum. Radiation and matter with momentum have positive but decreasing energy in the expanding universe, and the energy lost by them can contribute to accelerated spatial expansion between galactic clusters, making dark energy a classical effect that can be explained by general relativity without quantum mechanics, and, as (13) and (15) show, without an initial singularity or a big bang. This role of momentum, which was overlooked in the Standard Cosmological Model, is the basis of a simpler model which agrees with what is correct in the old model and corrects what is wrong with it.